• Users Online: 1426
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22

Preventive role of estradiol on kidney injury induced by renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in male and female rats


1 Water and Electrolytes Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Water and Electrolytes Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Isfahan Institute of Basic and Applied Sciences Research, Isfahan, Iran
3 Water and Electrolytes Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Department of Clinical Pathology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission01-Oct-2014
Date of Acceptance26-Dec-2014
Date of Web Publication20-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Department of Physiology, Water and Electrolytes Research Center, Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.153537

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) is the main cause of renal failure. The incidence of RIR injury seems to be gender-related due to female sex hormone; estrogen. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of estrogen against RIR injury in male and ovariectomized female rats.
Methods: Thirty-nine Wistar rats were used in this study as male and ovariectomized female rats in the sham-operated, RIR, and estradiol-treated plus RIR groups. The RIR was induced by clamping the renal vessels for 45 min and then 24 h of reperfusion. All animals finally were sacrificed for the measurements.
Results: The serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and kidney tissue damage score significantly increased in both male and female RIR rats (P < 0.05). Estradiol however significantly attenuated theses parameters (P < 0.05) toward normal levels in female (P < 0.05), but not in male rats. Kidney weight increased in both genders and estradiol intensified it in the male rats (P < 0.05). Uterus weight was increased by estradiol in female rats (P < 0.05) and testis weight did not alter in male rats.
Conclusions: Estradiol demonstrated a protective role against RIR injury in female rats; however, estradiol as an antioxidant could not protect the male kidney from RIR injury.

Keywords: Estrogen, gender, rat, renal ischemia-reperfusion


How to cite this article:
Iran-Nejad A, Nematbakhsh M, Eshraghi-Jazi F, Talebi A. Preventive role of estradiol on kidney injury induced by renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in male and female rats. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:22

How to cite this URL:
Iran-Nejad A, Nematbakhsh M, Eshraghi-Jazi F, Talebi A. Preventive role of estradiol on kidney injury induced by renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in male and female rats. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 15];6:22. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2015/6/1/22/153537


  Introduction Top


Acute renal failure is an important disturbance in many patients [1] and renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury is the most common cause of acute renal failure. RIR injury induces renal dysfunction characterized by increasing levels of creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). [2],[3],[4] In addition, studies have shown that the incidence of renal diseases is gender-related, and males exhibit a more rapid reduction in renal function than females. [5],[6] Mature male rats are more vulnerable to RIR injury than female rats, and females have higher survival rates than males. [7] Sex hormones; testosterone and estrogen play an important role in this phenomenon. [8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] Studies on experimental animal models have shown that male and female sex hormones affect renal injury. [13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] In addition, it is reported that estradiol replacement therapy attenuates renal dysfunction in diabetic ovariectomized female rats. [19] Estradiol therapy in brain injury in rats provides a protective effect against ischemia [20],[21] and improves spatial learning and memory. [21] In addition, administration of estradiol ameliorates liver dysfunction in aging male rats [22] while estradiol did not protect the kidney against confers protection nephrotoxicity. [23],[24],[25] To the best of our knowledge, the role of estradiol in RIR injury in males and females was not compared yet. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine whether estradiol could prevent RIR-induced renal injury in male and ovariectomized female rats.


  Methods Top


Animals

Sixteen adult female (weighing 175 ± 5.2 g) and 19 adult male (weighing 222.4 ± 8.6 g) Wistar rats (Animal Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran) were used in this study. The animals were housed under standard conditions with 12 h light/12 h dark cycle. Prior to the experiment, the protocols were confirmed to be in accordance with the Guidelines of Animal Ethics Committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Ovariectomy surgery

One week before estradiol administration, all female rats were anesthetized, and an incision was made in the abdominal middle line above the urinary outlet. The ovaries were removed, and the skin was sutured.

Experimental protocol

The animals were randomly divided into six experimental groups;

  • Group 1 (n = 5, the sham-operated group): Male rats received sesame oil (intramuscularly) and after 3 days underwent the surgical procedure without RIR surgery
  • Group 2 (n = 8): Male rats received regimen the same as group 1 and underwent RIR surgery
  • Group 3 (n = 6), male rats received single dose of estradiol (500 μg/kg; intramuscularly) and 3 days later underwent RIR surgery
  • Groups 4, 5, and 6 (n = 5, 6, and 5): Ovariectomized female rats received treatment/regimen the same as groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Renal ischemia-reperfusion surgery

To induce the RIR model, the animals were anesthetized by ketamine (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and xylazine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Two small incisions were made on the flanks and when the kidneys were visible, the kidney arteries and veins on both sides were clamped to stop the renal blood circulation. After 45 min, the clamp was removed for recirculation of blood flow. 24 h after the RIR surgery, all rats were anesthetized again. Blood samples were obtained via heart puncture. Serum samples were removed and stored at −20°C until measurement. Finally, all animals were killed, and kidneys and testes or uterus were removed and weighed immediately. In addition, the left kidney was fixed in 10% formalin solution for pathological assessments.

Measurements

Serum levels of Cr and BUN were measured using quantitative kits (Pars Azmoon, Iran) and automatic analyzer RA-1000 (Technicon , Ireland).

Histopathological procedures

The left kidney was fixed in 10% formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. The tissue slices were stained by hematoxylin and eosin to examine the tissue damage based on the presence of tubular atrophy, hyaline cast, ischemic necrosis, vacuolization, and debris. According to the damage intensity, the samples were scored as 1-4 and 0 was assigned to normal tissue.

Statistical analysis

The data were reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. The uterus, kidney, and testis weights; as well as BUN and Cr levels in the ischemia group were compared with the values obtained for the ischemia plus estradiol group or the sham-operated group using the Student's t-test. To compare the groups with regard to the kidney tissue damage score (KTDS), the Mann-Whitney test was applied. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


  Results Top


Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury increased the serum Cr and BUN levels in both genders (P < 0.05). However, estradiol decreased these parameters toward normal values in female, but not in male rats (P < 0.05) [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, testis weight (TW) and kidney weight (g)/100 g bodyweight (KW), kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) in the male groups. Abbreviations of Isch and Isch + Es were applied for ischemia and ischemia + estradiol. *and# indicates significant differences between the sham-operated and Isch groups, and between the Isch and Isch + estradiol groups, respectively

Click here to view
Figure 2: Serum levels of creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, uterus weight (UW) and kidney weight (g)/100 g body weight (KW), kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) in female groups. Abbreviations of Isch and Isch + Es were assigned to ischemia and ischemia + estradiol. *and# indicates significant differences between the sham-operated and Isch groups, and between Isch and Isch + estradiol groups, respectively

Click here to view


Kidney tissue damage score and kidney weight

Renal ischemia-reperfusion increased kidney weight in both genders (P < 0.05) and estradiol intensified kidney weight in male (P < 0.05), but not in female rats. In addition, estradiol ameliorated KTDS induced by RIR in female, but not in male rats (P < 0.05) [Figure 1] [Figure 2][Figure 3].
Figure 3: The pathology images (×100) of kidney tissue in the experimental groups. Abbreviations of Isch and Isch + Es were assigned to ischemia and ischemia + estradiol

Click here to view


Testis and uterus weights

Administration of estradiol increased uterus weight (P < 0.05). However, it did not alter the testis weight [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].


  Discussion Top


The present study was performed to compare the protective effect of estradiol against RIR-induced renal injury in male and female rats . The results obtained show that RIR induces renal dysfunction in both male and female rats; characterized by increasing serum BUN and Cr levels. These results were in agreement with the findings of other studies. [2],[3],[26] RIR-induced renal failure increases oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis by increasing the malondialdehyde, interleukines, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, respectively. [27] Estrogen may protect renal and cardiovascular systems by affecting glomerular mesangial cells in the kidney and smooth muscle cells in the vasculature [28] and improve renal and vascular damage induced by renal ischemia in atherosclerotic female mice through antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukine-6. [29] Furthermore, administration of estradiol decreased albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone female rats. [30] In addition, the protective effects of estrogen were exhibited via nitric oxide synthase system, [16] antioxidant, [31] and inflammatory [32] properties. It is possible that the estrogen ameliorates renal blood flow diminished by ischemia due to activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production. [16] Estrogen protects kidney against RIR through suppression of endothelin 1 overproduction. [17] Also, it is possible that the presence of progesterone in the female gender plays a role in ameliorating RIR injury. It has been reported that progesterone has neuroprotective effects [33] and in combination with estradiol improves the brain ischemia-induced injury [34],[35] and ameliorates bone loss in female rats. [36] In the present study, administration of estradiol not only did not ameliorate kidney dysfunction in male gender, but also intensified it. It is demonstrated that administration of estradiol (10 μg/kg) attenuated renal damage induced by bilateral RIR, while this was not the case at the doses of 20 and 100 μg/kg. [16] In another study, high mortality rate in male pretreated with estradiol was reported, while the course of ischemia-induced renal failure improved. [7] It seems that estradiol administration led to some unusual results [37] with an unknown mechanism. Administration of estradiol also attenuates vascular responses against acetylcholine in women but not men, [38] and estrogen supplementation improves endothelium-related dilation through increasing level of nitrite/nitrate in women, but not in men. [39] Our study showed that normalized kidney weight was increased by RIR injury in both genders. This observation was consistent with the findings of other studies, [2],[3],[40] which is probably due to edema. [40] Administration of estradiol intensified normalized kidney weight in male gender; confirmed by renal dysfunction and pathological findings. Estradiol also increased normalized uterus weight, confirmed by our recent studies. [23],[25] It has been demonstrated that estrogen increases uterus weight through increasing the glucose metabolism, activity of RNA polymerase, DNA content, and finally cell proliferation. [41]


  Conclusions Top


It was concluded that administration of estradiol could attenuate renal injury induced by RIR in female rats; however, as an antioxidant agent, it was not efficient in preventing renal dysfunction induced by RIR in male rats.


  Acknowledgements Top


We appreciate Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for supporting this project.

 
  References Top

1.
Mehta RL, Pascual MT, Soroko S, Savage BR, Himmelfarb J, Ikizler TA, et al. Spectrum of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit: The PICARD experience. Kidney Int 2004;66:1613-21.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Azarkish F, Nematbakhsh M, Fazilati M, Talebi A, Pilehvarian AA, Pezeshki Z, et al. N-acetylcysteine prevents kidney and lung disturbances in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:1139-46.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
3.
Moeini M, Nematbakhsh M, Fazilati M, Talebi A, Pilehvarian AA, Azarkish F, et al. Protective role of recombinant human erythropoietin in kidney and lung injury following renal bilateral ischemia-reperfusion in rat model. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:648-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
4.
Williams P, Lopez H, Britt D, Chan C, Ezrin A, Hottendorf R. Characterization of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1997;37:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Neugarten J, Acharya A, Silbiger SR. Effect of gender on the progression of nondiabetic renal disease: A meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:319-29.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Silbiger SR, Neugarten J. The impact of gender on the progression of chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1995;25:515-33.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Müller V, Losonczy G, Heemann U, Vannay A, Fekete A, Reusz G, et al. Sexual dimorphism in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: Possible role of endothelin. Kidney Int 2002;62:1364-71.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Antus B, Yao Y, Song E, Liu S, Lutz J, Heemann U. Opposite effects of testosterone and estrogens on chronic allograft nephropathy. Transpl Int 2002;15:494-501.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Baltatu O, Cayla C, Iliescu R, Andreev D, Jordan C, Bader M. Abolition of hypertension-induced end-organ damage by androgen receptor blockade in transgenic rats harboring the mouse ren-2 gene. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:2681-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kwan G, Neugarten J, Sherman M, Ding Q, Fotadar U, Lei J, et al. Effects of sex hormones on mesangial cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Kidney Int 1996;50:1173-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Maric C, Sandberg K, Hinojosa-Laborde C. Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are attenuated with 17beta-estradiol in the aging Dahl salt sensitive rat. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:1546-56.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nielsen CB, Flyvbjerg A, Bruun JM, Forman A, Wogensen L, Thomsen K. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats: Normalization with sex hormone substitution. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:3102-10.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Park KM, Kim JI, Ahn Y, Bonventre AJ, Bonventre JV. Testosterone is responsible for enhanced susceptibility of males to ischemic renal injury. J Biol Chem 2004;279:52282-92.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Hutchens MP, Nakano T, Kosaka Y, Dunlap J, Zhang W, Herson PS, et al. Estrogen is renoprotective via a nonreceptor-dependent mechanism after cardiac arrest in vivo. Anesthesiology 2010;112:395-405.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Park KM, Cho HJ, Bonventre JV. Orchiectomy reduces susceptibility to renal ischemic injury: A role for heat shock proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;328:312-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Satake A, Takaoka M, Nishikawa M, Yuba M, Shibata Y, Okumura K, et al. Protective effect of 17beta-estradiol on ischemic acute renal failure through the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. Kidney Int 2008;73:308-17.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Takaoka M, Yuba M, Fujii T, Ohkita M, Matsumura Y. Oestrogen protects against ischaemic acute renal failure in rats by suppressing renal endothelin-1 overproduction. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002;103 Suppl 48:434S-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Reckelhoff JF, Granger JP. Role of androgens in mediating hypertension and renal injury. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1999;26:127-31.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Mankhey RW, Bhatti F, Maric C 17beta-Estradiol replacement improves renal function and pathology associated with diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005;288:F399-405.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Wise PM, Dubal DB. Estradiol protects against ischemic brain injury in middle-aged rats. Biol Reprod 2000;63:982-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Raval AP, Borges-Garcia R, Javier Moreno W, Perez-Pinzon MA, Bramlett H. Periodic 17ß-estradiol pretreatment protects rat brain from cerebral ischemic damage via estrogen receptor-ß. PLoS One 2013;8:e60716.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Hamden K, Carreau S, Ellouz F, Masmoudi H, El FA. Protective effect of 17beta-estradiol on oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in aged male rats. J Physiol Biochem 2007;63:195-201.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Pezeshki Z, Nematbakhsh M, Nasri H, Talebi A, Pilehvarian AA, Safari T, et al. Evidence against protective role of sex hormone estrogen in Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in ovarectomized rat model. Toxicol Int 2013;20:43-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
24.
Pezeshki Z, Nematbakhsh M, Mazaheri S, Eshraghi-Jazi F, Talebi A, Nasri H, et al. Estrogen abolishes protective effect of erythropoietin against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in ovariectomized rats. ISRN Oncol 2012;2012:890310.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Nematbakhsh M, Pezeshki Z, Eshraghi-Jazi F, Ashrafi F, Nasri H, Talebi A, et al. Vitamin E, Vitamin C, or Losartan is not nephroprotectant against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in presence of estrogen in ovariectomized rat model. Int J Nephrol 2012;2012:284896.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Prókai A, Fekete A, Bánki NF, Müller V, Vér A, Degrell P, et al. Renoprotective effect of erythropoietin in rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury: Gender differences. Surgery 2011;150:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Kucuk A, Kabadere S, Tosun M, Koken T, Kinaci MK, Isikli B, et al. Protective effects of doxycycline in ischemia/reperfusion injury on kidney. J Physiol Biochem 2009;65:183-91.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Dubey RK, Jackson EK. Estrogen-induced cardiorenal protection: Potential cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2001;280:F365-88.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Li L, Ji H, Holloway C, Sandberg K, Ecelbarger C. Effects of 17 β-estradiol replacement in a model of renal ischemia in the ovariectomized female apolipoprotein E knockout mouse (1135.2). FASEB J 2014;28 1 Suppl: 1135.2.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Gross ML, Adamczak M, Rabe T, Harbi NA, Krtil J, Koch A, et al. Beneficial effects of estrogens on indices of renal damage in uninephrectomized shrsp rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:348-58.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Mooradian AD. Antioxidant properties of steroids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993;45:509-11.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Josefsson E, Tarkowski A, Carlsten H. Anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen. I. In vivo suppression of leukocyte production in bone marrow and redistribution of peripheral blood neutrophils. Cell Immunol 1992;142:67-78.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Moralí G, Letechipía-Vallejo G, López-Loeza E, Montes P, Hernández-Morales L, Cervantes M. Post-ischemic administration of progesterone in rats exerts neuroprotective effects on the hippocampus. Neurosci Lett 2005;382:286-90.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Ozacmak VH, Sayan H. The effects of 17beta estradiol, 17alpha estradiol and progesterone on oxidative stress biomarkers in ovariectomized female rat brain subjected to global cerebral ischemia. Physiol Res 2009;58:909-12.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Toung TJ, Chen TY, Littleton-Kearney MT, Hurn PD, Murphy SJ. Effects of combined estrogen and progesterone on brain infarction in reproductively senescent female rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2004;24:1160-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Kalu DN, Salerno E, Liu CC, Echon R, Ray M, Garza-Zapata M, et al. A comparative study of the actions of tamoxifen, estrogen and progesterone in the ovariectomized rat. Bone Miner 1991;15:109-23.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Oestreicher EM, Guo C, Seely EW, Kikuchi T, Martinez-Vasquez D, Jonasson L, et al. Estradiol increases proteinuria and angiotensin II type 1 receptor in kidneys of rats receiving L-NAME and angiotensin II. Kidney Int 2006;70:1759-68.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Collins P, Rosano GM, Sarrel PM, Ulrich L, Adamopoulos S, Beale CM, et al. 17 beta-Estradiol attenuates acetylcholine-induced coronary arterial constriction in women but not men with coronary heart disease. Circulation 1995;92:24-30.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Kawano H, Motoyama T, Kugiyama K, Hirashima O, Ohgushi M, Fujii H, et al. Gender difference in improvement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation after estrogen supplementation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:914-9.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Forbes JM, Hewitson TD, Becker GJ, Jones CL. Ischemic acute renal failure: Long-term histology of cell and matrix changes in the rat. Kidney Int 2000;57:2375-85.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Murphy LJ, Ghahary A. Uterine insulin-like growth factor-1: Regulation of expression and its role in estrogen-induced uterine proliferation. Endocr Rev 1990;11:443-53.  Back to cited text no. 41
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Protective Cellular Mechanism of Estrogen Against Kidney Stone Formation: A Proteomics Approach and Functional Validation
Paleerath Peerapen,Visith Thongboonkerd
PROTEOMICS. 2019; : 1900095
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Volume incompliance and transfusion are essential for transfusion-associated circulatory overload: a novel animal model
Robert B. Klanderman,Joachim J. Bosboom,Adrie A.W. Maas,Joris J.T.H. Roelofs,Dirk Korte,Robin Bruggen,Jaap D. Buul,Coert J. Zuurbier,Denise P. Veelo,Markus W. Hollmann,Margreeth B. Vroom,Nicole P. Juffermans,Bart F. Geerts,Alexander P.J. Vlaar
Transfusion. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 The effect of zinc acexamate on oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondria induced apoptosis in rat model of renal warm ischemia
Najet Hadj Abdallah,Anna Baulies,Ahlem Bouhlel,Mohamed Bejaoui,Mohamed Amine Zaouali,Safa Ben Mimouna,Imed Messaoudi,José Carlos Fernandez-Checa,Carmen García Ruiz,Hassen Ben Abdennebi
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 105: 573
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Gender differences in response to vitamin E and C in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats
Tahereh Safari,Saideh Miri,Omid Ghofran,Fatemeh Fereidooni,Abbass Ali Niazi,Hossein Bagheri,Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Journal of Nephropathology. 2017; 6(4): 338
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Molecular cloning of ESR2 and gene expression analysis of ESR1 and ESR2 in the pituitary gland of the Chinese alligator ( Alligator sinensis ) during female reproductive cycle
Ruidong Zhang,Yanan Yin,Long Sun,Peng Yan,Yongkang Zhou,Rong Wu,Xiaobing Wu
Gene. 2017; 623: 15
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats
Fatemeh Eshraghi-Jazi,Ardeshir Talebi,Fatemeh Sadat Mirsaeedi,Sarina Ahmadian,Fatemeh Moslemi,Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Scientifica. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Renal Protective Effects of 17ß-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy
Min Shi,Liang Ma,Li Zhou,Ping Fu
Molecules. 2016; 21(10): 1391
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis
Ruidong Zhang,Yuehong Hu,Huan Wang,Peng Yan,Yongkang Zhou,Rong Wu,Xiaobing Wu
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2016; 200: 28
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Estrogen administered after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation ameliorates acute kidney injury in a sex- and age-specific manner
Mizuko Ikeda,Thomas Swide,Alexandra Vayl,Tim Lahm,Sharon Anderson,Michael P. Hutchens
Critical Care. 2015; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgements
Conclusions
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1625    
    Printed34    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded202    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 9    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]