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 Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34

Effect of circuit resistance training on glycemic control of females with diabetes Type II


1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Guilan, Iran
2 Pediatrics Growth Disorders Research Center, 17 Shahrivar Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Guilan, Iran

Date of Submission12-Nov-2014
Date of Acceptance23-Feb-2015
Date of Web Publication10-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Setila Dalili
Pediatric Growth Disorder Research Center, 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Shahid Siadati Street, Rasht, Guilan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.154923

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  Abstract 

Background: We aimed to assess effects of circuit resistance training (CRT) on glycemic control of females with Type II diabetes.
Methods: Twenty obese and overweight females with diabetes Type II were randomly selected in two groups (circuit resistance exercise and control). CRT performed in 3 days/week for 3 months, and the serum and body parameters were assessed. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test in SPSS version 19.
Results: Mean age in the CRT and control group was 50.2 ± 4.89 years and 51.3 ± 6.63 years, respectively. Results showed significant changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and subcutaneous fat were noted in the CRT group (P = 0.04, P = 0.002, respectively). Also, findings indicated higher HbA 1c in CRT group after intervention in comparison with controls and results showed a significant difference (P = 0.04).
Conclusions: According to the positive effect of CRT, it seems that can be recommended for patients with diabetes Type II.

Keywords: Body composition, circuit resistance training, diabetes Type II, glycemic control


How to cite this article:
Shabani R, Nazari M, Dalili S, Rad AH. Effect of circuit resistance training on glycemic control of females with diabetes Type II. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:34

How to cite this URL:
Shabani R, Nazari M, Dalili S, Rad AH. Effect of circuit resistance training on glycemic control of females with diabetes Type II. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 16];6:34. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2015/6/1/34/154923


  Introduction Top


Diabetes and obesity are global epidemic diseases. [1, 2, 3] Currently, The World Health Organization estimated that in 2030, half of people living with diabetes will be Asian. [4] According to the previous investigation in Iran, about 2 million adults (7.7%) aged 25-64 years had diabetes and among whom one-half were undiagnosed. Also, 4.4 million had impaired fasting glucose. [5] Inability to control blood sugar may induce serious complications such as heart and kidney diseases, stroke, nervous damages, blindness and poor quality of life. [6]

However, appropriate level of physical activity can manage Type II diabetes [7] and resistance training has been recently documented to be a safe and officious therapeutic mean for the treatment of various chronic diseases for obese individuals during elderly. [1] Improved glycemic control can note the positive effect of physical activity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) can be applied to measure long-term (120 days) control. Sufficient glucose control is indicated as <7.0% HbA 1c value. [7] Although, previous studies that assessed resistance exercise with combined resistance and aerobic exercise sessions, showed significant reductions in HbA 1c . [8, 9, 10] In contrast, Geirsdottir et al. did not experience favorable changes in fasting glucose or HbA 1c in patients with diabetes Type II. [11] Therefore, there is no consensus on the effect of circuit resistance training (CRT) in females with Type II diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of CRT with moderate intensity and frequency on glycemic control of female with Type II diabetes.


  Methods Top


Subjects

This study was conducted on obese and overweight females with diabetes Type II attended in Ansari Hospital, Roudsar. Informed consent was obtained, and 20 participants were randomly divided into CRT and control groups. First group underwent 1-month dietitian regimen and 2 months CRT for 3 months. Dietary intake was individually prescribed by 3-day recall technique. The Human Studies Review Committee at Islamic Azad University, Rasht (679, 30 April 2014) approved the study.

Measurements body composition

The height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured at the enrollment and during the study. Standard calibrated scale and stadiometer were used to determine weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight (kg) by the square of the height (m 2 ). Caliper measured subcutaneous fat in three areas (arm, super iliac and thigh). Waist circumference was measured at the midpoint of the lowest rib and the iliac. Hip circumference was taken at the maximum circumference of the hip. Also, waist to hip ratio (WHR) was measured.

Laboratory tests

At the beginning and end of the study, the patients' blood glycemic tests of the brachial vein were collected after 12 h fasting. Baseline blood glycemic tests including HbA 1c and fasting blood glucose (FBS) (mg/dl) were measured. FBS and HbA 1c were obtained by Pars Azmoon enzyme kits (Iran) and Biosystem auto-analyzer devices (Spanish), respectively.

Circuit resistance training protocol

As the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) adjusted the exercise intensity, an individualized CRT was designed for each participant. After 1-month regimen, the CRT protocol was initiated 3 days/week for 2 months [Table 1]. The training consisted of 10 min warm up and 10 min cooling. During first 1-3 weeks, participants involved in six stations with 40-50% 1-RM intensity. Then, for remaining period (4-8 weeks), eight stations with the 50-65% 1-RM (16, 27) were indicated. 1-2 sets and 2-3 sets were noted for the first 3 weeks and remaining 5 weeks, respectively. This program included eight different exercises with 8-12 repetition in each set and 3 min rest between sets. Exercises included bench press, seated row, lateral pull down, biceps forward, front thigh, back thigh, leg press and rowing [Table 1].
Table 1. Timeline of intervention

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Statistical analysis

The normality of the data was indicated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Descriptive statistics such as mean ± standard deviation was used, and data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank-test and Chi-square in SPSS version 19 (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


  Results Top


Twenty obese and overweight patients included in this study. Mean age in the CRT and control group were 50.2 ± 4.89 years and 51.3 ± 6.63 years, respectively. In the CRT group, significant changes in HbA 1c and subcutaneous fat were noted after intervention (P = 0.04, P = 0.002, respectively) [Table 2].
Table 2. Body composition and laboratory results at the initiation and their changes during intervention in CRT and control groups

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Although, findings indicated higher HbA 1c in CRT group after intervention and results showed a significant difference in two groups (P = 0.04) [Table 3]. However, there was no significant difference between groups regarding weight, BMI, WHR and FBS after intervention (P > 0.05).
Table 3: Comparison of changes in body composition and laboratory results after intervention period

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  Discussion Top


This study demonstrated that a supervised CRT program was safe and well tolerated by obese and overweight patients with Type II diabetes. Although we found CRT involving eight upper and lower body exercises led to significant reductions in HbA 1c and Subcutaneous fat, BMI, body weight, and the WHR did not change significantly (P ≤ 0.05) which was inconsistent with Bishay et al. and Chudyk and Petrella They showed CRT as an effective tool for improving body composition. [12,13] In addition, Kang et al. reported that 12 weeks CRT and aerobic exercise effectively increased glucose use and reduced the amount of insulin required. [14] Hazley et al. noted that 50-60% of 1-RM CRT for 8 weeks, can reduce waist circumference and WHR significantly, with no associated changes in the control group.


  Conclusions Top


The resistance training program had little impact on metabolic risk factors in diabetics Type II. [15] However, some studies observed no effect. In a systematic review by Miller et al. which examined the combined effects of diet versus diet and exercise, the majority of studies mentioned no significant difference in body composition when exercise was added to diet restriction. [16] Furthermore, Misra et al. assessed effect of 12 weeks progressive resistance-exercise training on body composition in patients with Type II diabetes. Resistance training produced an increase in fat-free mass and diabetic patients needed more resistance training to improve muscle mass as they got older. It seems that resistance training reduces subcutaneous fat and probably it causes increased muscle fiber that might be due to some factors such as frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. [8]

Church et al. Showed that the effect of resistance exercise on glycemic control in individuals associated with a 0.57% decline in absolute HbA 1c as compared with control. [9] Also, another study assessed resistance training and aerobic training in females aged between 40 and 70 years in two groups. They indicated improvement in HbA 1c in both groups after 4 months. [17] Another study showed that 12 weeks progressive moderate-intensity resistance exercise resulted in significant improvements in glycaemia in Indians with Type II diabetes. [18] This showed that the effectiveness of resistance training on improving HbA 1c in diabetes patients appeared to differ according to the intensity, frequency, and duration of training. As a result, CRT had a positive effect on HbA 1c in females with diabetics Type II. It seems that plasma membrane GLUT4 was increased in skeletal muscle from individual with Type II diabetes in response to an acute exercise. Also, lower resting plasma membrane GLUT4 content in insulin resistant subjects have been observed in some studies. [1]


  Acknowledgements Top


We appreciate patients participating in this study and the staff of Diabetes Unit in Ansari Hospital of Roudsar for their cooperation. This study was financially supported by Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch.

 
  References Top

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Arora E, Shenoy S, Sandhu JS. Effects of resistance training on metabolic profile of adults with type 2 diabetes. Indian J Med Res 2009;129:515-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
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Eakin EG, Reeves MM, Lawler SP, Oldenburg B, Del Mar C, Wilkie K, et al. The Logan Healthy Living Program: A cluster randomized trial of a telephone-delivered physical activity and dietary behavior intervention for primary care patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertension from a socially disadvantaged community - Rationale, design and recruitment. Contemp Clin Trials 2008;29:439-54.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Iqbal N. The burden of type 2 diabetes: Strategies to prevent or delay onset. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007;3:511-20.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Esteghamati A, Hassabi M, Halabchi F, Bagheri M. Exercise prescription in patients with diabetes type 2. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2008;7:251-650.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Xia Z, Wang Z, Cai Q, Yang J, Zhang X, Yang T. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the adults in haikou city, hainan island, china. Iran J Public Health 2013;42:222-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Gordon BA, Benson AC, Bird SR, Fraser SF. Resistance training improves metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009;83:157-75.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Misra A, Alappan NK, Vikram NK, Goel K, Gupta N, Mittal K, et al. Effect of supervised progressive resistance-exercise training protocol on insulin sensitivity, glycemia, lipids, and body composition in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008;31:1282-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Church TS, Blair SN, Cocreham S, Johannsen N, Johnson W, Kramer K, et al. Effects of aerobic and resistance training on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;304:2253-62.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Umpierre D, Ribeiro PA, Kramer CK, Leitão CB, Zucatti AT, Azevedo MJ, et al. Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2011;305:1790-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Geirsdottir OG, Arnarson A, Briem K, Ramel A, Jonsson PV, Thorsdottir I. Effect of 12-week resistance exercise program on body composition, muscle strength, physical function, and glucose metabolism in healthy, insulin-resistant, and diabetic elderly Icelanders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012;67:1259-65.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Bishay RH, Omari A, Zang J, Lih A, Kormas N. Divide and conquer: The multidisciplinary approach to achieving significant long-term weight loss and improved glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2013;31:14-20.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Chudyk A, Petrella RJ. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1228-37.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Kang S, Woo JH, Shin KO, Kim D, Lee HJ, Kim YJ, et al. Circuit resistance exercise improves glycemic control and adipokines in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Sports Sci Med 2009;8:682-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Hazley L, Ingle L, Tsakirides C, Carroll S, Nagi D. Impact of a short-term, moderate intensity, lower volume circuit resistance training programme on metabolic risk factors in overweight/obese type 2 diabetics. Res Sports Med 2010;18:251-62.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Miller CT, Fraser SF, Straznicky NE, Dixon JB, Selig SE, Levinger I. Effect of diet versus diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition in class II and III obesity: A systematic review. J Diabetes Metab 2013;4:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Bacchi E, Negri C, Zanolin ME, Milanese C, Faccioli N, Trombetta M, et al. Metabolic effects of aerobic training and resistance training in type 2 diabetic subjects: A randomized controlled trial (the RAED2 study). Diabetes Care 2012;35:676-82.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Wycherley TP, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Cleanthous X, Keogh JB, Brinkworth GD. A high-protein diet with resistance exercise training improves weight loss and body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010;33:969-76.  Back to cited text no. 18
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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