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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 93

Experiences of cigarette smoking among Iranian educated women: A qualitative study

1 Department of Reproductive Health; Community Based Participatory Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 Community Based Participatory Research Center; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Mojgan Mirghafourvand
Department of Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.186585

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Background: Smoking is a well-known public health problem in women as well as men. In many countries including Iran, there is an increase in tobacco use among women. Exploring the experience of smoking by educated women in order to develop effective tobacco prevention programs in these women is necessary. This study aimed to explore the experiences of smoking among Iranian educated women. Methods: This study used a method of qualitative content analysis with the deep individual, semi-structured interviews on a sample of 14 educated female smokers, selected purposefully. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with conventional approach while being collected. Results: The data analysis led to 16 subcategories which were divided into four main categories: (1) Personal factors including subcategories of imitation, show-off and independence, inexperience and curiosity, personal interest and desire, improved mood, and social defiance; (2) family factors including smokers in the family, intrafamily conflicts, and family strictures and limitations; (3) social factors including subcategories of effects of work and school environment, gender equality symbols, peer pressure, and acceptance among friends; and (4) negative consequences of smoking including subcategories of a sense of being physically hurt, psychological and emotional stress, and being looked upon in a negative and judgmental manner. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that smoking among Iranian educated women is a multifactorial problem. Thus, it is necessary to address smoking among educated women in a holistic approach that focuses on different determinants including personal, family, and social factors particularly the gender roles and stereotypes.

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