|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 96
Medicinal plants, effective plant compounds (compositions) and their effects on stomach cancer
Elahe Aleebrahim-Dehkordy1, Hamid Nasri2, Azar Baradaran3, Parto Nasri3, Mohammad Reza Tamadon4, Mahrang Hedaiaty5, Sara Beigrezaei6, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei7
1 Department of Research, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University; Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
5 Department of Research, Forensic Medical Unit, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
6 Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
7 Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
|Date of Submission||05-Jan-2017|
|Date of Acceptance||30-Jul-2017|
|Date of Web Publication||07-Nov-2017|
Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.
Keywords: Medicinal, plants, stomach cancer, therapeutics
|How to cite this article:|
Aleebrahim-Dehkordy E, Nasri H, Baradaran A, Nasri P, Tamadon MR, Hedaiaty M, Beigrezaei S, Rafieian-kopaei M. Medicinal plants, effective plant compounds (compositions) and their effects on stomach cancer. Int J Prev Med 2017;8:96
|How to cite this URL:|
Aleebrahim-Dehkordy E, Nasri H, Baradaran A, Nasri P, Tamadon MR, Hedaiaty M, Beigrezaei S, Rafieian-kopaei M. Medicinal plants, effective plant compounds (compositions) and their effects on stomach cancer. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Apr 9];8:96. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2017/8/1/96/217832
| Introduction|| |
Nowadays, cancer is one of the most important problems dealing with medical science; the number of victims and those people who afflicted to this disease is increasing greatly. Among these, stomach cancer is the most important and fourth common cancer around the world. It is the second factor of death rate due to cancer. At present, several methods are used for cancer treatment; however, unfortunately, in most cases, the response to the treatment is very weak and causes improper subsidiary effects. Nowadays, because of the increase of death rate due to cancer and deficiency of chemical therapy and radiotherapy in advance forms, a need to find new methods to control cancer is essential.,,,,, At present century, there is wide range of researches on medicinal plants, and the introduction of medicines with natural effective compounds opens new horizons toward physicians and chemists association.,,,, So that at present time, one-third of the applicable medications in human community have been made from natural and herbal resources, and physicians believe that patients should be encouraged to consume herbal plants. In this regard, in recent decades, chemists have made various medicines based on the herbal extracts and presented to the market that their positive effects have been confirmed by physicians, researchers, and people.,,,,, These plants have been used for various diseases including cancer.,,,,,,,,,,, There have been some efforts for cancer treatment; however, unfortunately, in most cases, the response to treatment has been weak and often included the improper subsidiary effects., The present problems in the application of chemical therapy and radiotherapy and several subsidiary problems created for patients, and also, the cancerous cells resistant to the common treatments lead to the application of new medicines with more effects and less toxicity.,,,, The secondary metabolites are examples of these compounds that have very important role in several illness treatments such as cancer. With regard to the fact that the secondary plant metabolites have great therapy potential, hence, we investigated the important medicinal plants and their effective compounds for stomach cancer treatment. On the other hand, since the clinical symptoms and the prevalence of stomach cancer are different in various communities, more knowledge about involvement, clinical symptoms, and stomach cancer prevalence might have important roles in stomach cancer prevalence which might have an important role in time recognition and treatment of cancer. This research was aimed at investigation and gathering of scientific texts about stomach cancer and the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.
| The Cancer Mechanism and Tumor Creation|| |
Lack of tumor control genes causes the uncontrollable division of cancer cells. One of the inhibitor genes is P53 which on chromosome 17 P13.1. When this gene mutates, it causes an unusual protein synthesis. At this time, opposite to its natural operation destroys all the genes that work under the effect of this protein. Some molecules and biologic cell division processes also change the path.,, The gene mutation and mutated sequences distribution in different cancers are different. As it was said, cancer is considered as a consequence of cell's exit from the correct path of adjusted, proliferative, and distinctive approach. Lack of sensibility to inhibit signals, avoidance from programmed cell death, indefinite potential of proliferation, keeping angiogenic, tissue invasion, and metastasis all may lead to malignancy and cancer. A tumor cell that has more repetitive division than other cells has changed surface features. Furthermore, it loses the specificity of the cell that derived from it. A malignant tumor influences near the tissues and can link to the basic membrane and enzymes secretion that influences and leads to bloodstream which help metastasis. Each drug usually has a specific site to act.,,,,,,, This is the same for anticancer drugs. Medicinal plants also use these sites for their actions.
| Factors Related to the Increase of Stomach Cancer|| |
Generally, the clinical symptoms of stomach cancer in primary phases are not specific, and because of ambiguity and lack of specificity signs and symptoms, it is difficult to reorganize it. Other than these, various factors cause increase in cancer incidence and prevalence. The cancer factors include environmental and genetic factors that cause cancerous cells with the damage and deficiency in genome operation. The studies have demonstrated that cancer incidence grows with age, and elderly people are more exposing to high-risk factors of hard curable diseases such as cancer. All of these factors are increasing in environment. Cancer-making genes observed in relation to stomach cancer are mostly specialized to P53 gene although other genes are also involved. Among all stomach cancers, adenocarcinoma accounts for 95% of stomach malignancies and the rest 5% involve lymph, stromal and other rare tumors. Genetic, individual, environmental, and infectious factors are involved in stomach cancer. In addition, men are usually in double risk of affliction in comparison with women. Stomach cancer is one of the digestive system cancers that due to its weak recognition, it is the second factor of death rate related to cancer. Genetic factors, smoking, and chronic infections are the important factors, especially for stomach cancer. There are more than 100,000 chemical compounds that directly or indirectly have their effects and harms in cytoplasm and cell's nucleus and lead to genetic disorders and finally cause mutations. In addition, viruses, bacteria, and different radioactive make inherited cancer that their number is about 7% of all cancers.,, In [Table 1], some cancer symptoms are presented. Some studies have mentioned the Helicobacter pylori and improper diet as the most important factors of stomach cancer. Generally, the prevalence of H. pylori in developing countries is >80%, and in developed countries, it is <30%.H. pylori is a little bacillary form bacteria that create infection in mucous layer of human stomach, and if the infection lasts, 10%–15% of people are afflicted to ulcers or/and stomach cancer. The Helicobacter infection is a very important and effective factor in stomach cancer and distinguishes this cancer from other types of cancer., In the last years before the recognition of this bacteria, it was specified that adenocarcinoma usually derived from the stomach. Scientists' viewpoints have changed the relationship of this bacterial infection with the risk of cancer creation in gastritis lesion location. Generally, the H. pylori primary infection causes the creation of slight gastric, and in some people, this inflammation leads to stomach ulcers., The presence of pathogenic factor and lack of stomach ulcers treatment cause the atrophic inflammation. People afflicted to this inflammation are in risk of malignancy and cancer. Another risk factor is smoking. In a study that was done in 2007, it was recognized that stomach cancer in smokers was double in comparison with those who were not smoking. Some other risk factors for this illness are fatness, salt, red meat, hot drinks, and pepperoni foods.,,,,,, In conclusion, it might be said that different factors are determinative of stomach cancer incidence and the consideration of just one-factor increase or decrease cannot be recognized. In [Table 2], some of the most important environmental factors related to stomach cancer and other cancers are presented., The incidence rate of cancer is increasingly growing. This increase is significant in the west part of Iran and considers as a problem. This increase is observed in other parts of the country, too. In addition, in studies performed in Iran, stomach cancer is reported higher for men than women. In west part of Iran, the prevalence is 2.7; in Davoodabadi's study, it is 2.8; in Safahi, it is 2.3, and in Rajaeefard's study, it is 2.2.
| The Anticancer Effect of Medicinal Plants and Their Effective Compounds|| |
Nowadays, medicinal plants usage has gained attention because of their protective roles against damaging factors. These plants have an important role in community health. The application of these plants demonstrates the importance of their effective compounds to treat disease.,,,,,, The secondary metabolites in plants are a lot, and lots of them are not still recognized. The plant compounds that have anticancer and antitumor features lay in aldehydes, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, and phenol compounds. These compounds also have some other properties. It is significant that nowadays, >60% of common anticancer medicines are derived from natural resources including plants and microorganisms. There are effective compounds with anticancer effect that might lead to cancer cells inhibition through the cell apoptosis increase. It has been found that phenol thymol compound dose-dependently has antioxidant effects on prostate cancer cells. The mechanism of these phenolic compounds is due to the oxidative stress reduction or due to the cyclooxygenase enzymes inhibition. Photochemical existent in the essence of Thymus kotschyanus, especially the leaf, have antiseptic, antifungal and antioxidant activities. The flowered branches of this plant are full of phenol compounds, especially thymol and carvacrol. The phenol and thymol compounds have the inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase enzyme activity. These compounds and similar ones have a wide range of other properties.,,,, With regard to the anticancer effect of effective thymol and carvacrol compounds, the application of T. kotschyanus plant and other plants with these compounds might be effective in cancer prevention and treatment. Other researches have demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extract of Lagenaria siceraria leaf has the toxicity effect on cancer cells levels of Hep-2, MCF-7, and A-549, because of having pectin, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, such as focostrol and campsrol, phenol compounds, and glycosides. Barhang kabir (Great plantain) with scientific name of Plantago major L. belongs to Plantaginaceae family. It has several medicinal properties such as skin protection, cancer prevention, and tumor prevention., Barhang kabir (P. major L.) is an important medicinal plant for cancer treatment that has compounds such as phenol compounds (caffeic acid derivatives), flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. The main flavonoid compound in Plantago species is the Luteolin 7-glucoside compound that has important role in cancer prevention., Recently, there are many reports based on the Plantago species in traditional medicine against cancer in different countries around the world such as Mexico and Argentina.P. major in the Canary Islands, Chile, Venezuela, and Panama are applied for tumor treatment., Bedir et al. reported that steroids, saponins derived from Tribulus terrestris, destroy lines SK-Mel, KB, BT-459, and SK-OV-3. In another study, Kim et al. (2011) reported that aqueous extract of T. terrestris fruit prevented the cells proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in liver cancer cells (HPGZ) through signaling NFkB in a dose-dependent manner. The Crocus sativus has antiactivating leukemia and ovary cancer features. Furthermore, the prevention of cancer cells activity for breast cancer by two types of C. sativus is confirmed., Other studies have demonstrated that C. sativus extract in laboratory environment can prevent the formation of tumor cells and cell DNA and RNA formation through Hela cells. In addition, it is specified that C. sativus extract and combine crosins significantly inhibited the colorectal cell growth without effect on other cells growth. The mechanism of plant medicinal plant effect on cell different lines is reported by researchers. Gole-Mohammadi with scientific name of Rosa damascena from Rosaceae family contains carboxylic acid, myrcene, camphor, and quercetin. The phenol compounds of Gole-Mohamadi (R. damascena) remove free radicals and the antioxidant effect of this plant has role in the prevention of cancer and destructive cancer cells through different paths such as apoptosis promotion and prevention from angiogenic and metastatic growth. The research demonstrated that ethanol and aqueous extract of R. damascena prevented the cell proliferation of AGS level (the stomach and carcinoma)., This effect is related to the plant antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds such as phenols, polyphenols, and flavonoids scavenge free radicals such as peroxide or hydroperoxide and prevent the oxidative process that leads to genome damage and mutation incidence.,,,, Star thistle plant with scientific name of T. terrestris in traditional medicine is used for several diseases treatment such as cancer. The extract of this plant and some other plants contain saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and sterol., Star thistle causes the inhibition of cancerous cells AGS level. Saffron with the scientific name of C. sativus has anticancer effects, and in dry saffron stigma, more than 150 compound composition has been recognized such as glucose, minerals, and secondary metabolism, including terpinenes, flavonoids, anthocyanin, and carotenoids.C. sativus extract postpones the tumor activity in mouse., Several researches have shown the cytotoxic effect of saffron (C. sativus) extract on cancer cells in vitro.,, The exposure of cancerous cells in saffron extract causes the acid nucleic synthesis in cells. The results of research have confirmed that this plant extract causes inhibition of cancer cells AGS level.,,,, [Table 3] refers the most important medicinal plants with anticancer of different lines such as AG (stomach adenocarcinoma).
|Table 3: The medicinal plants and their effective compounds in cancerous line inhibition|
Click here to view
| Conclusions|| |
Nowadays, cancer is the most important problem and the number of afflicted people to this disease is increasing fast. The cancer common treatments often destroy healthy cells that cause the toxicity effects and subsidiary effects on patients. Therefore, today, there is an inclination toward the use of plants and their compounds as potential anticancer that has direct toxic activities on malignant cells. Since stomach cancer is considered as one of the most important dead factors around the world, the application of medicinal plants and their effective compounds, as low-risk natural factors with the highest anticancer effects and the least subsidiary problems, have a special importance.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Amiri M. Herbal drugs herbal drugs at the point of care. J Ischemia Tissue Repair 2017;1:e02.
Fock KM, Talley N, Moayyedi P, Hunt R, Azuma T, Sugano K, et al.
Asia-Pacific consensus guidelines on gastric cancer prevention. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:351-65.
Salami A, Amiri M. On the occasion of world cancer day 2017; breast cancer. J Ischemia Tissue Repair. 2017;1(1):e02.
Wong H, Yau T. Molecular targeted therapies in advanced gastric cancer: Does tumor histology matter? Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2013;6:15-31.
Nasri H. Renoprotective effects of garlic. J Renal Inj Prev 2013; 2: 27-28.
Bagheri S, Ahmadvand H, Mohammadrezaei Kkorramabadi R, Khosravi P. Amount of limonene in different parts of plants. Geriatr Persia. 2017;1(1):e03.
Baradaran A. Administration of herbal drugs in geriatric individuals; trends on its helps and hazards. Geriatr Persia. 2017;1(1):e01.
Shakweer MM, El-Sheshtawy NM. Emerging role of Treg FOXP3 expression in cancer prognosis and autoimmune diseases. Immunopathol Persa. 2017;3:e01.
Hayati F, Nasouti MA, Shayanpour S, Ahmadi Halili S, Karimpourian H, Beladi Mousavi Z. Survival of patients with end-stage renal disease in Iran. Ann Res Dial 2016;1:e01.
Asadi-Samani M, Nasrollah N, Bahmani M. A review of the most important and the most widely used native medicinal plants of Iran effective on cardiac arrhythmia. Angiol Persica Acta 2016;1:e025.
Nasri H. Herbal drugs and new concepts on its use. J Prev Epidemiol 2016;1:e01.
Bahmani M, Asadi-Samani M. A short look to the most important medicinal plants effective on wound healing. J Inj Inflamm 2016;1:e07.
Nasri H. Help or hindrance; administration of herbal drugs for kidney diseases. Toxicol Persa 2016;1:e04.
Khodadadi S. Role of herbal medicine in boosting immune system. Immunopathol Persa 2015;1:e01.
Baharvand-Ahmadi B, Asadi-Samani M. Medicinal plants and treatment of hypertension; evidence from Iran. J Nephropharmacol 2017;6:3-8.
Althaf MM. The advent of Onco-nephrology - a novel subspecialty. J Renal Inj Prev. 2014 Jun 11;3:57-9.
Aleebrahim-Dehkordy E, Khodadadi S, Mousavipanah Z, Nasri H. Herbal antioxidants and kidney. Ann Res Antioxid 2016;1:e08.
Nasri H, Abedi-Gheshlaghi Z, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Curcumin and kidney protection; current findings and new concepts. Acta Persica Pathophysiol 2016;1:e01.
Dehghan-Shahreza F, Beladi-Mousavi SS, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Medicinal plants and diabetic kidney disease; an updated review on the recent findings. Immunopathol Persa 2016;2: e04.
Kafeshani M. Ginger, micro-inflammation and kidney disease. J Renal Endocrinol 2015;1:e04.
Nasri H. Impact of garlic extract on platelet function and structure. Ann Res Platelets 2016;1:e01.
Dehghan-Shahreza F. An update on administration of herbal drugs in renal failure patients. J Prev Epidemiol. 2017;2(1):e03
Amiri A, Amiri A. Antioxidants and heart disease; current knowledge. Ann Res Antioxid 2017;2: e03.
Asadi-Samani M, Nasrollah N, Bahmani M. A report of the most important medicinal plants with anti-angiogenesis effects. Angiol Persica Acta 2016;1:e10.
Wiwanitkit V. Estimation of cancer risk due to exposure to cadmium contamination in herbal products in Thailand. J Nephropharmacol 2015;4:81-2.
Iravani SH. Gastric cancer as a multifactorial disease. J Army Univ Med Sci 2013;11:157-64.
Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC, Gansler TS, Holland JF, et al
. Tumor markers and immunodiagnosis. Hamilton: Cancer Medicine Canada, BC Decker Inc.; 2003.
Hartgrink HH, Jansen EP, van Grieken NC, van de Velde CJ. Gastric cancer. Lancet 2009;374:477-90.
Rahimi F, Heidari M, Time trend analysis of stomach cancer incidence in the West of Iran. J Health Dev 2012;1:100-11.
Zeraati H, Mahmoudi M, Kazemnejad A, Mohammed K. Postoperative life expectancy in gastric cancer patients and its associated factors. Saudi Med J 2005;26:1203-7.
Fitzgerald RC, Caldas C. Clinical implications of E-cadherin associated hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Gut 2004;53:775-8.
Oliveira C, Suriano G, Ferreira P, Canedo P, Kaurah P, Mateus R, et al.
Genetic screening for familial gastric cancer. Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2004;2:51-64.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1022-37.
Srivastava V, Negi AS, Kumar JK, Gupta MM, Khanuja SP. Plant-based anticancer molecules: A chemical and biological profile of some important leads. Bioorg Med Chem 2005;13:5892-908.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Natural products: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;1830:3670-95.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod 2012;75:311-35.
McBride OW, Merry D, Givol D. The gene for human p53 cellular tumor antigen is located on chromosome 17 short arm (17p13). Proc Natl Acad Sci 1986;83:130-4.
Isobe M, Emanuel BS, Givol D, Oren M, Croce CM. Localization of gene for human p53 tumour antigen to band 17p13. Nature 1986;320:84-5.
Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Harris CC. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science 1991;253:49-53.
Bahmani M, Asadi-Samani M. Native medicinal plants of Iran effective on peptic ulcer. J Inj Inflamm 2016;1:e05.
Katiyar S, Dash BC, Thakur V, Guptan RC, Sarin SK, Das BC. P53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma patients in India. Cancer 2000;88:1565-73.
Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. Theories of carcinogenesis: An emerging perspective. Semin Cancer Biol 2008;18:372-7.
Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer 2006;118:3030-44.
National Research Council. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2, Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Board on Radiation Effects Research, Division on Earth and Life Sciences, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2006.
William WN Jr., Heymach JV, Kim ES, Lippman SM. Molecular targets for cancer chemoprevention. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2009;8:213-25.
Klinge U, Ackermann D, Lynen-Jansen P, Mertens PR. The risk to develop a recurrence of a gastric cancer-is it independent of time? Langenbecks Arch Surg 2008;393:149-55.
Pak F, Barati M, Shokrolahi M, Kokhaei P. Tumor immunology and tumor escape mechanisms from immune response. Koomesh 2014;15:12-430.
Dastjerdi MN, Kavoosi F, Valiani A, Esfandiari E, Sanaei M, Sobhanian S, et al.
Inhibitory effect of genistein on PLC/PRF5 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:54.
] [Full text]
Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, Kang HS, Elyaman W, Jiang X, et al.
Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells. Nat Med 2012;18:1248-53.
Lambert R, Guilloux A, Oshima A, Pompe-Kirn V, Bray F, Parkin M, et al.
Incidence and mortality from stomach cancer in Japan, Slovenia and the USA. Int J Cancer 2002;97:811-8.
Ghorbanalipoor S, Âjami A, Rafiei A, Taghvaei T, Paylakhi S, Hosseini V. Expression of interleukin 11 (IL-11) in benign and malignant lesions of the gastric mucosa. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2011;21:2-11.
Afkhami-Ardakani M, Hassanzadeh S, Shahrooz R, Asadi-Samani M, Latifi M, Luther T. Phytotherapy and phytopharmacology for reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in the male urinary system. J Renal Inj Prev. 2017;6(3):164-170.
Rafieian-Kopaei M. Medicinal plants for renal injury prevention. J Renal Inj Prev 2013;2:63-5.
Ghafari M, Taheri Z, Hajivandi A, Amiri M. Parathyroid carcinoma; facts and views. J Parathyr Dis 2015;3:37-40.
Yazdizadeh B, Jarrahi AM, Mortazavi H, Mohagheghi MA, Tahmasebi S, Nahvijo A. Time trends in the occurrence of major GI cancers in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005;6:130-4.
Tamadon MR, Saberi Far M, Soleimani A, Ghorbani R, Semnani V, Malek F, et al.
Evaluation of noninvasive tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori
infection in hemodialysis patients. J Nephropathol 2013;2:249-53.
Beladi Mousavi SS, Naghdifar S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori
infection by herbal drugs; a review on current data. J Prev Epidemiol 2016;1:e06.
Sjödahl K, Lu Y, Nilsen TI, Ye W, Hveem K, Vatten L, et al.
Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to risk of gastric cancer: A population-based, prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer 2007;120:128-32.
Tamadon MR. Comment on: Significant association of serum H. pylori IgG antibody titer with kidney function in renal transplanted patients. J Renal Inj Prev 2013;2:7-8.
Jalalzadeh M, Ghadiani MH, Mousavinasab N. Association between Helicobacter pylori
infection and body mass index, before and after eradication of infection in hemodialysis batients. J Nephropathol 2012;1:170-6.
Ardalan MR, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Is the safety of herbal medicines for kidneys under question? J Nephropharmacol 2013; 2(2): 11-12.
Kafeshani M. Diet and immune system. Immunopathol Persa 2015;1:e04.
Ardalan MR, Mardani S, Asgari-Savadjani S, Tamadon MR, Naghdifar S, Nasri H. An update on Helicobacter pylori
infection in renal failure patients. Immunopathol Persa 2016;2: e10.
Dong LM, Potter JD, White E, Ulrich CM, Cardon LR, Peters U. Genetic susceptibility to cancer: The role of polymorphisms in candidate genes. JAMA 2008;299:2423-36.
Davoodabadi AH, Sharifi H, Erfan N, Dianati M, Abdol Rahim Kashi E. An epidemiologic and clinical survey on Gastric cancer patients to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Kashan (1994-2001). Razi J Med Sci 2003;10:211-20.
Lorigooini Z, Kobarfard F, Ayatollahi SA. Anti-platelet aggregation assay and chemical composition of essential oil from Allium atroviolaceum
Boiss growing in Iran. Int J Biosci 2014;5:151-6.
Rajaiefard A, Moghimi B, Tabatabaie SH, Safaie A, Tabeie SZ. Epidemiological and clinical features of gastric cancer: Descriptive study of cancer registry cases of Fars Province (2001-2006). Iran South Med J 2011;14:114-21.
Azadmehr A, Hajiaghaee R, Afshari A, Amirghofran Z, Refieian-Kopaei M, yousofi H., Darani and Hedayatollah Shirzad. Evaluation of in vivo
immune response activity and in vitro
anti-cancer effect by Scrophularia megalantha. J Med Plants Res. 2011; 5(11): 2365–2368.
Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. Cancer genes and the pathways they control. Nat Med 2004;10:789-99.
Lorigooini Z, Ayatollahi SA, Amidi S, Kobarfard F. Evaluation of anti-platelet aggregation effect of some Allium
species. Iran J Pharm Res 2015;14:1225-31.
Fasihzadeh S, Lorigooini Z, Jivad N. Chemical constituents of Allium stipitatum
regel (Persian shallot) essential oil. Der Pharm Lett 2016;8:175-80.
Sugerman PB, Joseph BK, Savage NW. Review article: The role of oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and growth factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A case of apoptosis versus proliferation. Oral Dis 1995;1:172-88.
Ardalan MR, Tamadon MR. Interstitial nephritis; a rising threat with different aspects. Ann Res Dial. 2017; 2(1):e02.
Tamadon MR, Zahmatkesh M. Helicobacter pylori in patients with chronic renal failure; a new update. Geriatr Persia. 2017;1(1):e04.
Khodadadi S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Herbs, health and hazards; a nephrology viewpoint on current concepts and new trends. Ann Res Antioxid 2016;1:e05.
Mahmoudian Sani MR, Asadi-Samani M, Shirzad H, Moradi MT, Tamadon MR. Biomarkers in cancer. Persian J Front Cancers. 2016;1(1):e03.
Ghasemi S, Lorigooini Z. A review of significant molecular mechanisms of flavonoids in prevention of prostate cancer. J Chem Pharm Sci 2016;9:3388-94.
Nasri P. Mitochondria as a biomarker for cancer therapy. Aria J Front Biomark. 2016;1(1):e01
Samani BH, Khoshtaghaza MH, Lorigooini Z, Minaei S, Zareiforoush H. Analysis of the combinative effect of ultrasound and microwave power on Saccharomyces cerevisiae
in orange juice processing. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2015;32:110-5.
Zomorodian K, Moein M, Lori ZG, Ghasemi Y, Rahimi MJ, Bandegani A, et al
. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from Myrtus communis
leaves. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 2013;16:76-84.
Hajian S. Positive effect of antioxidants on immune system. Immunopathol Persa 2015;1:e02.
Sharma G, Tyagi N, Hooda V. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Lagenaria siceraria
. Int Res J Pharm 2012;3:1-4.
Chiang LC, Chiang W, Chang MY, Ng LT, Lin CC. Antiviral activity of Plantago major
extracts and related compounds in vitro
. Antiviral Res 2002;55:53-62.
Samuelsen AB. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major
L. A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:1-21.
Gálvez M, Martín-Cordero C, López-Lázaro M, Cortés F, Ayuso MJ. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago
spp. on cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88:125-30.
Srivastava V, Negi AS, Kuma JK, Gupta MM, Khanuja SP. Plantbased anticancer molecules: A chemical and biological profile of some important leads. Bioorg Med Chem 2005;13:5892-590.
Bedir E, Khan IA, Walker LA. Biologically active steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris
. Pharmazie 2002;57:491-3.
Kim HJ, Kim JC, Min JS, Kim MJ, Kim JA, Kor MH, et al.
Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris
Linn induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-?B signaling in liver cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;136:197-203.
Aung HH, Wang CZ, Ni M, Fishbein A, Mehendale SR, Xie JT, et al.
Crocin from Crocus sativus
possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Exp Oncol 2007;29:175-80.
Tavakkol-Afshari J, Brook A, Mousavi SH. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3443-7.
Abdullaev FI, Frenkel GD. The effect of saffron on intracellular DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in malignant and non-malignant human cells. Biofactors 1992;4:43-5.
Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med 1982;45:31-4.
Boskabady MH, Shafei MN, Saberi Z, Amini S. Pharmacological effects of Rosa damascena
. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2011;14:295-307.
Kodouri MR, Tabaei Aghdaei SR. Evaluation of flower yield and yield components in nine Rosa damascena
Mill. accessions of Kerman Province. J Med Aromat Plants 2007;23:100-10.
Meimandi K, Yaghoobi MM. Effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Rosa damascena
Mill L. against human gastric cancer cells. J Cell Mol Res 2015;2:299-309.
Jafari T. Antioxidants; helpful or harmful? Ann Res Antioxid 2016;1:e13.
Kandaswami C, Lee LT, Lee PP, Hwang JJ, Ke FC, Huang YT, et al.
The antitumor activities of flavonoids. In Vivo
Mohammadparast V. Antioxidant efficacy of Hibiscus esculentus
. Front Biomed 2016;1:e04.
Zareiforoush H, Minaei S, Alizadeh M, Banakar A, Hosseinzadeh B. Design, development and performance evaluation of an automatic control system for rice whitening machine based on computer vision and fuzzy logic. Comput Electron Agric 2016;124:14-22.
Rabiei Z, Lorigooini Z, Kopaei MR. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis
on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2016;11:824-9.
Moghadaszadeh-Ardebili S. The anticancer mechanism of capsaicin on various cancer cell lines. Ann Res Antioxid 2016;1:e06.
Yang HJ, Qu WJ, Sun B. Experimental study of saponins from Tribulus terrestris
on renal carcinoma cell line. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2005;30:1271-4.
Ivanova A, Serly J, Dinchev D, Ocsovszki I, Kostova I, Molnar J. Screening of some saponins and phenolic components of Tribulus terrestris
and Smilax excelsa
as MDR modulators. In Vivo
Mahmoudian-Sani MR, Mehri-Ghahfarrokhi A, Shojaeian A, Asadi-Samani M, Luther T. The role of microRNAs in human cancers. Immunopathol Persa. 2018;4:e05.
Yousefichaijan P, Maghsudlu F, Rafiei M. Multicystic dysplastic kidney and related epidemiologic factors. J Renal Inj Prev. 2017;6:236-239.
Nasri H. Cancers and herbal antioxidants. Persian J Front Cancers. 2017;2:e01.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]