• Users Online: 905
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 139

Effects of food restriction and/or aerobic exercise on the GLUT4 in type 2 diabetic male rats


1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Research Center for Noncommunicable Diseases, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
3 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission03-Sep-2017
Date of Acceptance05-Oct-2017
Date of Web Publication12-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mehdi Kargarfard
Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Street, P.O. Box 81746-7344
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_383_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: The aim of present study was to compare the effects of negative energy balance with food restriction and/or aerobic exercise on the glucose, insulin, and GLUT4 levels in diabetic male rats. Methods: Fifty-six 10-week old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: a non-diabetic (ND) group and six diabetic groups. After an infusion of type 2 diabetes, the diabetic groups were given labels as well, namely diabetic control (DC) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction with standard diet (FRSD) group, food restriction with low-carbohydrate diet (FRLCD) group, food restriction with standard diet combination in exercise (FRSDE) group, and food restriction with low-carbohydrate diet combination in exercise (FRLCDE) group. Further, to induce caloric restriction (CR), food intake was reduced by 20% and given to food restriction consists of both of (FRSD and FRLCD). Hundred percent food consumption for the Ex group was fixed, but instead, 20% of their energy intake in exercise was calculated, and time of daily exercise was determined. Finally, a combination of reduced food intake (10%) and exercise (10%) was applied in each group FRSDE and FRLCDE for 8 weeks. Results: The results showed that type 2 diabetes inductions had reduced glucose, insulin, and GLUT4 gene expression compared to the ND group (P = 0.001). However, there were significant differences in GLUT4 gene expression between groups after 8 weeks of intervention (P = 0.001). A post hoc least significant difference test show that compared to DC group, GLUT4 gene expression level of Ex, FRSDE, and FRLCDE groups was significantly increased 47% (P = 0.004), 60% (P = 0.001), and 65% (P = 0.001), respectively after 8 week of intervention, but it was not significant or with any other diabetic groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, glucose levels were significantly higher in the FRLCDE, FRLCD, FRSD, FRSDE, Ex groups compared with the DC group in the same period (P = 0.0.01). Conclusions: It was concluded that FRSD and FRLCD combination in regular exercise was elevated of GLUT4 gene expression in type 2 diabetes. These results may help to develop new methods for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: GLUT4 gene expression, low-carbohydrate diet, standard diet, type 2 diabetes


How to cite this article:
Dastbarhagh H, Kargarfard M, Abedi H, Bambaeichi E, Nazarali P. Effects of food restriction and/or aerobic exercise on the GLUT4 in type 2 diabetic male rats. Int J Prev Med 2019;10:139

How to cite this URL:
Dastbarhagh H, Kargarfard M, Abedi H, Bambaeichi E, Nazarali P. Effects of food restriction and/or aerobic exercise on the GLUT4 in type 2 diabetic male rats. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 9];10:139. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2019/10/1/139/264172




  Introduction Top


Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is preventable but not curable and more than 280 million people worldwide suffer from this disease. Insulin resistance is the most important disorder and a precursor state of type 2 diabetes mellitus that occurs even before the improvement of hyperglycemia.[1],[2] Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular glucose levels play a major role in the onset of insulin resistance.[3] The major causes of insulin resistance are owing to defects in insulin signaling, changes in insulin target genes, metabolic problems, and contrast in other hormones.[4],[5],[6] Changes in gene expression and transportation of GLUT4 are directly related to insulin resistance, especially in skeletal muscle.[7] Most studies report that type 2 diabetes reduces gene expression and transportation of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells.[8] Studies have shown that the reduction of calorie intake and low-carbohydrate diet are the common methods to reduce exogenous carbohydrate availability (glycemia) and the prevention and/or improvement of type 2 diabetes.[9] There is some evidence that low-carbohydrate diets reduce fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in overweight and obese individuals with insulin resistance and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[10] Exercise and diet are two certain ways to reduce calorie intake as well as improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes.[11]

It has been suggested that calorie restriction (CR) for 6 weeks reduces 53% of insulin resistance in rats that were fed a high-fat diet.[12] Similarly, aerobic exercise reduces insulin resistance by the improvement of gene expression and transportation of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells.[13] Shicheng Cao et al. (2012) showed that long-term exercise training increases the phosphorylation and GLUT4 gene expression in rats with type 2 diabetes.[14] In addition, Sung-Tae Park et al. (2011) have shown that streptozotocin (STZ) injection reduces the amount of GLUT4 gene expression in the skeletal muscles of healthy rats, but exercise can improve GLUT4 gene expression in diabetic rats.[15] The diet includes decreasing total energy intake or decreasing one or more components of food (especially macronutrients).[16] A low-fat diet (LFD) with high carbohydrates, combined with regular exercise, is traditionally recommended for type 2 diabetics. However, such a lifestyle is not suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes because high level of carbohydrates in the diet increases plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes.[17] Recent studies have created a change in our insight of the low-carbohydrate diet and its interaction with type 2 diabetes.[17] In this context, studies have shown an extreme correlation between low-carbohydrate diets and improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.[18] Studies have also shown that low-carbohydrate diets reduce hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.[19],[20] However, few studies have examined the effect of low-carbohydrate diets on GLUT4 in the skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. To prevent or improve the health condition of type 2 diabetes, promoting the quality of life, reducing economic costs, and mortality in patients, so the mechanism of a low-carbohydrate diet alone and in combination with aerobic exercise on GLUT4 in the muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, are vital. In fact, finding ways to reduce the risk for obesity-related disorders, including type 2 diabetes is important. Such approaches can include lifestyle interventions by diet and exercise. The aim of this study was, therefore, to test whether the addition of aerobic exercise to a food restriction (FR) and food restriction with low-carbohydrate (FRLC) diets leads to greater improvements in glucose, insulin, and GLUT4 gene expression levels compared to FRLC diet alone in diabetic male rats. In light of recent evidence, we hypothesize that the novel combination of a FRS and FRLC diets and aerobic exercise represents a promising lifestyle strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


  Methods Top


Fifty-six 10-week old male Wistar rats (body weight 229 ± 19.5 g) were kept in separate polycarbonate cages (groups of four) at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) with 12 light/12 dark cycles. The animals were randomly separated to seven groups: a non-diabetic group (ND; n = 8) and six diabetic groups. Following an infusion of type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetic groups were accidently separated into six groups. These are the diabetic control group (DC; n = 8), exercise group (Ex; n = 8), food restriction with standard diet group (FRSD; n = 8), food restriction with low-carbohydrate diet group (FRLCD; n = 8), food restriction with standard diet combination in exercise group (FRSDE; n = 8), and food restriction with low-carbohydrate diet combination in exercise (FRLCDE; n = 8).

Infusion type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes was infused in Wistar male rats that have fasted overnight, by injecting 60 mg/kg STZ (Sigma Aldrich, USA) 15 min after an injection of 110 mg/kg of nicotinamide (Sigma Aldrich, USA).[19] STZ and nicotinamide were dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) and saline.[21],[22] The ND control group was injected with citrate buffer.[20] After 1 week, blood was taken from the rats' tail veins for diagnosis of diabetes. Levels of fasting plasma glucose above 126 mg/dl were considered as evidence of type 2 diabetes.[23]

Animals and diets

According to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and AIN-93G formulas for the growth of rats,[24] rat chow diets were mixed. Two kinds of diets, namely the standard diet (SD) and the low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) were used in this study. Where the LCD was concerned, the amount of starch was decreased to 24% of the original formula. Meanwhile, the amounts of other nutrients were chosen similar to the SD to ensure that there are sufficient nutrients for the rats to grow normally, [Table 1].[25] Food consumption by each group was measured for 1 week, and daily consumption of food was determined for all groups. Further, to induce CR, 20% of food was reduced consists of both of (FRSD and FRLCD). Hundred percent of food consumption for the Ex group was fixed, but instead, 20% of their energy intake in exercise was calculated, and the time of daily exercise was determined.[26] The intensity of exercise was fixed (28 m/min),[25] but the time of exercise was variable to control exact negative energy balance (similar to 20% of their energy intake). Finally, a combination of reduced food intake (10%) and exercise (10%) was applied in two groups, namely FRSDE and FRLCDE. The time duration of daily exercise of the rats was determined according to their energy expenditure in exercise. Exercise training involved daily running in 2 different sessions with 15 min' rest between each session, for 8 weeks.[26]
Table 1: Composition of rat chow diet (diet divided into standard and low-carbohydrate food and given to rats for total protocol)

Click here to view


Exercise training program

To adapt the rats at first week, Ex, FRSDE, and FRLCDE groups were exercised on a rat motor-driven treadmill at speed of 10 m/min for 15 min and gradually increased up to 28 m/min for 60–70 min during the adaptation stage. The exercise started between 7 A.M and 11 A.M in an almost dark place.[26] To shorten adaptation phase, it was tried to choose runner rats. A slight electric shock was used for encouragements of rats. After adaptation, the rats ran at treadmill speed of 28 m/min (70–75% VO2 max ~7.78 ml. 100 g. min -1)[27] and duration of (Ex, 71 min), (FRSDE, 46 min), and (FRLCDE, 39 min). The duration was equal to 20% of Ex group and 10% of FRSDE and FRLCDE groups baseline energy requirements. The FRSDE and FRLCDE groups remained in the cage without exercise.

Exercise calorie expenditure

Resting oxygen consumption during exercise was assessed through Shepherd and Gollnick equations from running time, intensity, and total body weight listed in [Table 2].[27] Resting oxygen uptake was calculated by multiplying body weight times 2.42 ml O2/100 g per min. Calorie expenditure was achieved by subtracting resting O2 consumption from exercise O2 uptake and multiplying by 4.86 Kcal/l O2(assuming an respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.85).[27]
Table 2: Energy intake and expenditure through exercise and/or caloric restriction per each day

Click here to view


Exercise calorie expenditure = Exercise oxygen (7.77 ml O2/100 g per min – Resting oxygen (2.42 ml O2/100 g per min) × 4.86 Kcal/l O2(assuming an RQ of 0.85).[27]

Therefore, in accordance with the cited equation, exercise sessions designed corresponding 20% or 10% of daily calorie intake (DCI) through equations demonstrated below:

VO2= % of DCI/4.86

Exercise duration (min) = VO2/(exercise O2 uptake ml O2/100 g per min - resting O2 uptake ml O2/100 g per min) × body weight.[27]

Measurement of serum parameters

At the end of the experimental protocol, blood samples from the rats, which have fasted overnight, were gathered from their hearts. Glucose was measured by Accu-Chek Active (from Iran), and Serum insulin was measured with an insulin ELISA kit (Kristal De Biotik from China).

Real-time polymerase chain reaction

Total RNA was extracted from the rats' soleus muscles. To prepare the total RNA, the muscles were homogenized in trizol solution. RNA was then isolated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The extracted RNA was dissolved in 500 ml of diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) water and stored at –70°C. We used optical density (OD) to characterize the quality and density of the extracted RNA. The OD was measured at a specified wavelength of 260 nm. The amount of 1 mg of isolated RNA from each sample was used to make cDNA by M-MLV inverse transcriptase (TAKAR, Japan). For real-time PCR reaction, we used a commercial kit (SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix, Applied Biosystems, USA). GLUT4 and GAPDH genes (as housekeeping genes) were multiplied by using (SYBR Green PCR Master Mix ABI, USA) and ABI step one plus device. The intended thermal cycle of reaction includes a step to activate polymerase in 95°C in 10 min followed by 40 cycles (95°C in 15 s and 60°C in 1 min). After the PCR was done and to study the primers, a temperature range from 55 to 99 was used to derive the melting curve. The following primers were used: REV: CAGCGAGGCAAGCTAGA and FOR: GGGCTGTGAGTGAGTGCTTTC. The cycle of threshold (CT) of the reactions was extracted by real-time-PCR software. We also used the 2-ΔΔCt method to quantify the GLUT4 mRNA expression.

Statistical analyses

All analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows (version 19.0, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). A Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to determine the normality of distribution of measures, which were found to be normally distributed. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the differences in a parameter among the groups. Significant differences were identified using the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test. All data were expressed as mean ± SD, and significance was set at the alpha level P ≤ 0.05.


  Results Top


Glucose level

There were significant differences in glucose levels between groups after 8 weeks of intervention (P = 0.002). However, type 2 diabetes clearly increased the glucose serum compared to the ND group (P = 0.001). The post hoc LSD test analysis revealed that compared to DC group, glucose level of FRSD group was significantly decreased 14.8% after 8 week protocol (P = 0.002); In addition, 15.9% significant decrease was observed in FRLCD group in comparison to DC group (P = 0.001). Ex, FRSDE, and FRLCD groups fasting glucose level showed 13.6%, 16.5%, and 19% decrease comparing to DC, respectively (P < 0.01) [Table 3].
Table 3: Effects of 8 weeks negative energy balance on glucose, insulin plasma levels, and GLUT4 gene expression

Click here to view


Insulin level

Insulin fasting concentration did not altered significantly in any diabetic groups after 8 week intervention (P > 0.05). However, the results showed that 2 diabetic male rats had a significant decrease in insulin concentration compared to ND group (P = 0.001) [Table 3].

GLUT4 gene expression

There were significant differences in GLUT4 gene expression between groups after 8 weeks intervention (P = 0.001). However, the results showed that type 2 diabetes inductions had reduced GLUT4 gene expression compared to the ND group (P = 0.001). The post hoc LSD test analysis revealed that compared to DC group, GLUT4 gene expression level of Ex group was significantly increased 47% after 8 week protocol (P = 0.004); In addition, 60% significant increase was observed in FRSDE group in comparison to DC (P = 0.001). In FRLCDE group, GLUT4 gene expression level showed 65% significant increase compared to DC (P = 0.001), but it was not significant or with any other diabetic groups [Table 3].


  Discussion Top


Our study examined the effect of negative energy balance with food restriction only or combination with aerobic exercise on the GLUT4 in diabetic male rats. Diet restrictions, SD and LCD, Ex, or a combination of exercise and CR caused a significant reduction in glucose level compared to the DC group. CR increases glucose metabolism in rats.[28] Evidence suggests that this is owing to large part to increased muscle glucose utilization.[29] Studies have shown increased insulin sensitivity after activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the skeletal muscle of rats during CR.[30] CR activates a cellular energy regulator (AMPK), a cellular manager that activates energy production when calorie and glucose levels are low. AMPK makes cells more energy-efficient by facilitating glucose transport across cell membranes, which can reduce glucose levels in rats.[31] Furthermore, the RLCE group had the most significant effect on glucose reduction. These results are consistent with the result of a study by Filaire et al.[32] who reported that a combination of exercise and CR considerably reduced the density of blood glucose compared to diabetic groups.[33] Evidence from many studies, such as the Nurses' Health Study [34] and Health Professional Addition Study [35] has shown that carbohydrate intake reduction has a positive correlation with improvement in type 2 diabetes. Reducing the intake of high-carbohydrate foods is one of the most important methods of improving hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients.[36] Many studies have shown that an LCD markedly lowers serum glucose and serum insulin levels after meals.[37],[38] Samaha et al., have shown that there is a major decrease in fasting serum glucose levels in LCD diabetic groups compared to the LFD groups.[12] Many mechanisms can improve glucose uptake during and after exercise, notably those, involving the enhancement of muscle blood flow, insulin resistance (IR) turnover, insulin binding to its receptor (IR), and glucose is transported by stimulating GLUT4 translocation to the muscle cell surface.[39],[40] Skeletal muscle reduces blood glucose during exercise, which is independent of insulin signaling pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes.[41] The results show that the RLCE group had the most important effect on blood glucose reduction that might be attributed to the combination of dietary carbohydrate reduction and increased glucose utilization by muscles as a result of exercise. We certainly cannot suggest that this reduction in blood glucose is caused by the combined effect of exercise and FRLCDE, as identification of this process requires a more extensive investigation. Rats with type 2 diabetes showed a significant decrease in insulin levels compared to ND rats. The injection of STZ destroys the beta-cells significantly by reducing the amount of insulin production.[42] It is now well established that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops when beta-cells are unable to supply the amount of insulin needed to maintain normal glucose levels.[43] However, fasting insulin density did not change considerably in any of the diabetic groups after the 8-week protocol. These results are contrary to the findings of a previous study conducted by Khowailed et al.,[44] who have reported that CR alone or in combination with exercise significantly decreases insulin levels. The results showed that reduction of type 2 diabetes induction reduced GLUT4 gene expression more significantly than the ND group. Food restriction alone cannot lead to a major increase in GLUT4, although Ex, FRSDE, and FRLCDE groups had significantly higher GLUT4 gene expressions than to the DC group. FR and exercise stimulate the GLUT4 by different signaling pathways, whereby GLUT4 is translocated to the cell membranes and transverse tubules, where it mediates the transport of glucose into the muscle cells.[45],[46],[47] Exercise training markedly increases insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and neutralize insulin resistance, a generic feature of type 2 diabetes. Although it seems that certain dimensions of the molecular relationship between exercise and insulin sensitivity improvement remain unknown, a large body of literature suggests that aerobic exercise improves glucose transport into muscle cells. The number of glucose transporters associated with the plasma membrane and transverse tubules increase sharply directly after exercise [48] with a concomitant increase in glucose uptake. As already mentioned, a substantial portion of glucose ingested after exercise is taken up by skeletal muscles to replenish glycogen stores.[49] Therefore, the recently suggested functional association between muscle glycogen and GLUT4 is particularly interesting.[50] These authors hypothesize that glycogen reduction would result in a larger available pool of free GLUT4 vesicles. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rat over-expressing GLUT1, which have dramatically increased muscle glycogen levels, are insulin resistant.[51],[52] Exercise training improves the phosphorylation and expression of the protein kinase cascade in the activated protein kinase AMPK signaling pathway, which can increase GLUT4 content, and subsequently increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscles. Furthermore, exercise training increases GLUT4 gene expression in type 2 diabetic patients.[53],[54] The results of the present study showed that induction of type 2 diabetes decreased GLUT4 gene expression in the skeletal muscles.[47] However, exercise training alone or with CR could improve GLUT4 gene expressions in type 2 diabetic patients. El-Tablawy and Khaleel have shown that exercise training increases GLUT4 protein expression in insulin deficiency and insulin resistance on the rats' skeletal muscles.[15],[55]


  Conclusions Top


Results indicated that adding exercise to the FR programs has any effect on the insulin levels than to the DC group, but it increased the blood glucose level and GLUT4 gene expression of diabetic groups. Exercise may be considered a treatment option with positive effects on obesity and metabolic changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the exact mechanism in which a combination of exercise with FRSD and FRLCD affects GLUT4 needs further research. The results of our study show that a LCD combined with aerobic exercise is a viable plan for type 2 diabetes patients. However, these results may help to develop new approaches for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Acknowledgments

This study was financially supported by the University of Isfahan. The authors would like to thank the administrative staff, physicians, nurses, and other personnel at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jiang W. Sirtuins: Novel targets for metabolic disease in drug development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;373:341-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dunmore SJ, Brown JE. The role of adipokines in beta-cell failure of type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol 2013;216:T37-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tomas E, Lin YS, Dagher Z, Saha A, Luo Z, Ido Y, et al. Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance: Possible mechanisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;967:43-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shulman GI. Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2000;106:171-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Balamatsias D, Kong AM, Waters JE, Sriratana A, Gurung R, Bailey CG, et al. Identification of P-Rex1 as a novel Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that promotes actin remodeling and GLUT4 protein trafficking in adipocytes. J Biol Chem 2011;286:43229-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kargarfard M, Lam ET, Shariat A, Asle Mohammadi M, Afrasiabi S, Shaw I, et al. Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents. Phys Sportsmed 2016;44:208-16.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Thorens B, Charron MJ, Lodish HF. Molecular physiology of glucose transporters. Diabetes Care 1990;13:209-18.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Garvey WT, Maianu L, Zhu JH, Brechtel-Hook G, Wallace P, Baron AD. Evidence for defects in the trafficking and translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters in skeletal muscle as a cause of human insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1998;101:2377-86.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Giannopoulou I, Fernhall B, Carhart R, Weinstock RS, Baynard T, Figueroa A, et al. Effects of diet and/or exercise on the adipocytokine and inflammatory cytokine levels of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2005;54:866-75.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, weight watchers, and zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: A randomized trial. JAMA 2005;293:43-53.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Hotta K, Funahashi T, Arita Y, Takahashi M, Matsuda M, Okamoto Y, et al. Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:1595-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Speakman JR, Mitchell SE. Caloric restriction. Mol Aspects Med 2011;32:159-221.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Rodnick KJ, Holloszy JO, Mondon CE, James DE. Effects of exercise training on insulin-regulatable glucose-transporter protein levels in rat skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1990;39:1425-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Cao S, Li B, Yi X, Chang B, Zhu B, Lian Z, et al. Effects of exercise on AMPK signaling and downstream components to PI3K in rat with type 2 diabetes. PLoS One 2012;7:517-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Park ST, Kim K, Yoon JH, Lee S. Effect of exercise on GLUT4 expression of skeletal muscle in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. J Exerc Physiol 2011;14:113-22.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Trepanowski JF, Canale RE, Marshall KE, Kabir MM, Bloomer RJ. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: A summary of available findings. Nutr J 2011;10:107-43.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Arora SK, McFarlane SI. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management. Nutr Metab 2005;27075:2-16.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2074-81.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004;53:2375-82.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Guldbrand H, Dizdar B, Bunjaku B, Lindström T, Bachrach-Lindström M, Fredrikson M, et al. In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss. Diabetologia 2012;55:2118-27.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Shirwaikar A, Rajendran K, Kumar CD, Bodla R. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona squamosa in streptozotocin-nicotinamide type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:171-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Masiello P, Broca C, Gross R, Roye M, Manteghetti M, Hillaire-Buys D, et al. Experimental NIDDM: Development of a new model in adult rats administered streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Diabetes 1998;47:224-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Shirwaikar A, Rajendran K, Barik R. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:285-90.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey Jr GC. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 1993;123:1939-51.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Chen JH, Ouyang C, Ding Q, Song J, Cao W, Mao L. A moderate low-carbohydrate low-calorie diet improves lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin expression in rats. Nutrients 2015;7:4724-38.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Jashni HK, Mohebbi H, Delpasand A, Jahromy HK. Caloric restriction and exercise training, combined, not solely improve total plasma adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Sport Sci Health 2015;11:81-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Shepherd R, Gollnick P. Oxygen uptake of rats at different work intensities. Pflugers Arch 1976;362:219-22.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Reaven E, Wright D, Mondon CE, Solomon R, Ho H, Reaven CM. Effect of age and diet on insulin secretion and insulin action in the rat. Diabetes 1983;32:175-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Cartee CD, Kietzke EW, Briggs-Tung C. Adaptation of muscle glucose transport with caloric restriction in adult, middle-aged, and old rats. Am J Physiol 1994;266:R1443-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Wang P, Zhang RY, Song J, Guan YF, Xu TY, Du H, et al. Loss of AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 impairs the insulin-sensitizing effect of calorie restriction in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 2012;61:1051-61.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Mihaylova MM, Shaw RJ. The AMPK signalling pathway coordinates cell growth, autophagy and metabolism. Nat Cell Biol 2011;13:1016-23.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Filaire E, DeGoutte F, Jouanel P, Dabonneville M, Duchamp C, Lac G, et al. Biological alterations after food restriction and training in rats. J Exerc Physiol 2004;7:24-63.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Gomes RJ, de Oliveira CAM, Ribeiro C, Mota CSdA, Moura LP, Tognoli LMMC, et al. Effects of exercise training on hippocampus concentrations of insulin and IGF-1 in diabetic rats. Hippocampus 2009;19:981-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Hu F, Willett W. Diet and coronary heart disease: Findings from the nurses' health study and health professionals' follow-up Study. J Nutr 2000;5:132-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diabetes Care 2004;27:538-46.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Blades M, Morgan J, Dickerson J. Dietary advice in the management of diabetes mellitus-history and current practice. J R Soc Promot Health 1997;117:143-50.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Hanefeld M, Fischer S, Julius U, Schulze J, Schwanebeck U, Schmechel H, et al. Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death in newly detected NIDDM: The Diabetes Intervention Study, 11-year follow-up. Diabetologia 1996;39:1577-83.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Josse RG, Karasik A, Laakso M, et al. The Stop-niddm trial: An international study on the efficacy of an α-glucosidase inhibitor to prevent type 2 diabetes in a population with impaired glucose tolerance: Rationale, design, and preliminary screening data. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1720-5.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Zinman B, Kahn SE, Haffner SM, O'Neill MC, Heise MA, Freed MI. Phenotypic characteristics of GAD antibody-positive recently diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes in North America and Europe. Diabetes 2004;53:3193-200.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Afzalpour M, Bashafaat H, Shariat A, Sadeghi H, Shaw I, Dashtiyan A, et al. Plasma protein carbonyl responses to anaerobic exercise in female cyclists. J Appl Exerc Physiol 2016;5:53-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Cantó C, Auwerx J. Caloric restriction, SIRT1 and longevity. Tren Endocrin Metab 2009;20:325-31.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Eleazu CO, Eleazu KC, Chukwuma S, Essien UN. Review of the mechanism of cell death resulting from streptozotocin challenge in experimental animals, its practical use and potential risk to humans. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2013;12:60.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Weir GC, Laybutt DR, Kaneto H, Bonner-Weir S, Sharma A. Beta-cell adaptation and decompensation during the progression of diabetes. Diabetes 2001;50(Suppl 1):S154-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Khowailed AA, Mubarak HA, Rashed LA, Ameen MA. Effects of chronic exercise and/or food restriction on growth factors in diabetic male rats. Med J Cairo Univ 2011;79:43-51.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Holloszy JO. A forty-year memoir of research on the regulation of glucose transport into muscle. American J Physio-Endocrin Metab 2003;284:453-67.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Ren JM, Semenkovich CF, Gulve EA, Gao J, Holloszy JO. Exercise induces rapid increases in GLUT4 expression, glucose transport capacity, and insulin-stimulated glycogen storage in muscle. J Biol Chem 1994;269:14396-401.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Frøsig C, Richter EA. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: Focus on insulin signaling. Obesity 2009;17;383-20.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Goodyear LJ, Hirshman MF, King PA, Horton ED, Thompson CM, Horton ES. Skeletal muscle plasma membrane glucose transport and glucose transporters after exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990;68:193-8.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Maehlum S, Felig P, Wahren J. Splanchnic glucose and muscle glycogen metabolism after glucose feeding during postexercise recovery. Am J Physiol 1978;235:E255-60.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Coderre L, Kandror KV, Vallega G, Pilch PF. Identification and characterization of an exercise-sensitive pool of glucose transporters in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 1995;270:27584-8.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Goodyear P, Laurie J, Kahn M, Barbara B. Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity. Annu Rev Med 1998;49:235-61.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Gulve EA, Ren JM, Marshall BA, Gao J, Hansen PA, Holloszy JO, et al. Glucose transport activity in skeletal muscles from transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT1. Increased basal transport is associated with a defective response to diverse stimuli that activate GLUT4. J Biol Chem 1994;269:18366-70.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Dela F, Ploug T, Handberg A, Petersen LN, Larsen JJ, Mikines KJ, et al. Physical training increases muscle GLUT4 protein and mRNA in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 1994;43:862-5.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Adams OP. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2013;6:113-22.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Ivy JL. Muscle insulin resistance amended with exercise training: Role of GLUT4 expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:1207-11.  Back to cited text no. 55
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed242    
    Printed23    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded49    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]