|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 183
Risk of seizure after naloxone therapy in acute tramadol poisoning: A systematic review with meta-analysis
Nastaran Eizadi-Mood1, Maliheh Ghandehari2, Marjan Mansourian3, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee4, Shiva Samasamshariat3, Erfan Sadeghi5
1 Department of Clinical Toxicology, Isfahan Clinical Toxicology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Toxicology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Isfahan Clinical Toxicology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5 Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
|Date of Submission||14-Jul-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||07-Oct-2018|
|Date of Web Publication||09-Oct-2019|
Department of Clinical Toxicology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Many studies have focused on the relationship between naloxone and seizure in tramadol poisoning but the results are in conflict. We performed a meta-analysis study to see whether naloxone prevents or increase the risk of seizure in tramadol poisoning. Methods: Bibliographic literature searches were conducted in the ISI Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Cochrane from January 1990 to December 2017 for relevant articles. Pooled data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The outcome includes seizure. To investigate the publication bias, Begg's and Egger's tests were used along with funnel plot as a graphical test. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed I2, 27%, (P value, 0.23) indicating no significant heterogeneity. As a result, using the fixed effect, the OR was 1.14 (95% CI = 0.60–2.18, P value, 0.69) which was not significant, means naloxone did not increase the risk of seizure. Conclusions: Naloxone therapy did not increase the risk of seizure significantly in the treatment of acute tramadol poisoning. We suggest considering the risk/benefit when administration naloxone, especially for the seizure risk factors including previous history of seizure, tramadol misuse, and co-ingestion.
Keywords: Meta-analysis, naloxone therapy, poisoning, review, tramadol overdose
|How to cite this article:|
Eizadi-Mood N, Ghandehari M, Mansourian M, Sabzghabaee AM, Samasamshariat S, Sadeghi E. Risk of seizure after naloxone therapy in acute tramadol poisoning: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med 2019;10:183
|How to cite this URL:|
Eizadi-Mood N, Ghandehari M, Mansourian M, Sabzghabaee AM, Samasamshariat S, Sadeghi E. Risk of seizure after naloxone therapy in acute tramadol poisoning: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 7];10:183. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2019/10/1/183/268737
| Introduction|| |
Poisoning is one of the most common medical emergencies. Early diagnosis of poisoning and appropriate management can be vital. The general pattern of poisoning is different in any geographic region.,, Tramadol is one of the most commonly prescribed opioid drugs throughout the world to control moderate-to-severe pains., The association between tramadol use and fatal poisoning or history of drug misuse has been reported in previous studies.,,,,,,
One of the important clinical manifestations of tramadol is seizure,,,, occurring in <1% of the usual dose of tramadol users, but it is also observed due to tramadol poisoning.,,,,, Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used to restore the respiratory depression caused by natural and synthetic opiates., The efficiency of naloxone for reversing central nervous system toxicity of tramadol has been questioning.,
Many studies have focused on the relationship between naloxone and seizure in tramadol poisoning but the results are in conflict. Some animal studies reported naloxone reduced the seizure activity of opioid and tramadol.,,, However some studies did not support naloxone therapy for the treatment of tramadol overdose due to potentiality seizure episode occurrence., The highest prevalence of seizures induced by naloxone was in the first 2 h after injection in tramadol poisoning.
As tramadol overdose and misuse is common in many emergency departments; and because of different reported effects of naloxone to show whether naloxone prevents or induce a seizure episode in patients with tramadol poisoning, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on human studies to see the relationship between naloxone and seizure in tramadol poisoning.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Science with a grant number of 393904.
Bibliographic literature searches were conducted in the ISI Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Cochrane from January 1990 to December 2017 for relevant articles. References lists of the selected articles were also searched.
We searched all four databases using keyword search techniques for relevant studies according to the search tools of each database. The selected keywords were as follows: (Naloxone OR Naloxon) AND (Poisoning OR Toxicity OR Tramadol OR “Tramadol Poisoning” OR “Tramadol Toxicity” OR “Tramadol Intoxication” OR “Drug overdose”) (seizures OR seizure) in Title and MESH/subject and in Abstract.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Studies included in the meta-analysis had to meet the following criteria: (i) addressing about naloxone and tramadol; (ii) original studies. All types of clinical trials, historical cohort, case control, and cross-sectional studies with the main outcome of seizures that happened one and half hours after naloxone injection in the course of acute tramadol poisoning were included and analyzed. Articles related to animal studies, non-English articles, case reports, and review articles were excluded.
Screening and Selection
At the first screening stage, two reviewers independently screened title and abstract of retrieved documents to determine those which met the eligibility criteria. Primary selection of studies was based on the inclusion criteria. The duplicated publications were excluded. Full citations of those documents considered eligible at least by one reviewer were imported into an EndNote database. In the next stage, the full text of the imported papers was provided and reviewed for subject relevancy individually by each of the two reviewers. A critical appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the validity of the selected studies and to criticize them. Finally, the two researchers made a face-to-face meeting, discussing on articles selections. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. In the cases, where consensus did not happen, a third researcher made the final decision on the eligibility of a particular article. Consequently, those studies, which have been considered as valid by both researchers, selected for data extraction.
A list of eligible studies was produced. Also, a specific checklist for data extraction was designed for recording data from the selected studies. The extracted data were the author's name, country, year of publication, type of study, age, gender, naloxone administration, presence of seizure, past history of seizure, history of tramadol misuse, co-ingestion, tramadol dose, time between ingestion and admission, number of seizure, exclusion criteria, other seizure risk factors outcome, and length of hospital stay in selected studies.
We calculated the odds ratio (OR) as the summary effect and the corresponded 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed by the Chi-square test of heterogeneity and I2 statistic and also by the Forest Plot. If no strong evidence of heterogeneity were seen across the studies, fixed-effect model and Mantel–Haenszel method were used to pool the ORs. To investigate the publication bias due to small studies, Begg's and Egger's tests were used along with funnel plot as a graphical test.
| Results|| |
The search strategy has been shown in [Figure 1]. A total of 907 articles from four databases were searched by two researchers. With the elimination of repetitive articles and considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 64 articles were examined and their full text was extracted for further investigation. In the end, seven articles complied with the criteria and enter the meta-analysis.
|Figure 1: Flow chart of the literature search for performing the meta-analysis|
Click here to view
The information regarding these seven articles has been shown in [Table 1]. The total number of patients in these seven studies was 1101. The meta-analysis showed I2, 27%, (P-value, 0.23) indicating no significant heterogeneity. Naloxone did not significantly increase the risk of seizure although patients received naloxone had 1.14 chance of seizure compared to the control group (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.60–2.18) (Z value, 0.40; P value, 0.69). Egger's (P = 0.017) test result also showed publication bias exists [Figure 2] and [Figure 3].
|Table 1: Brief details of the included published articles used for the meta-analysis|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Funnel plot of articles about the relationship between naloxone administration and seizure in tramadol toxicity|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Forest plot of relationship between naloxone administration and seizure in tramadol|
Click here to view
The squares indicate ORs for the primary studies and the size of the square reflect the statistical weight of each study. The horizontal lines also represent the estimated CIs (95%) for the odds of naloxone on the incidence of seizure. The diamond indicates overall OR and the corresponded 95% CI. The vertical line shows the line of no effect (OR = 1). The I2 statistic gives information on how consistent results of the primary studies are (i.e., value >50% suggesting inconsistency among studies).
| Discussion|| |
We performed a meta-analysis about the relationship between naloxone administration and seizure in tramadol poisoning. Our meta-analysis showed I2 was <50% indicating no significant heterogeneity. As a result, using the fixed effect, the OR was 1.14 (95% CI = 0.60–2.18, P value, 0.69) which was not significant, means naloxone did not increase the risk of seizure.
We included seven articles in this meta-analysis. One study performed by Hassanian-Moghaddam et al. was not estimable in the meta-analysis as seizure did not occurr in any groups.
Two articles of this meta-analysis showed naloxone increased the risk of seizure. In a study by Spiller et al., all exposure reported to seven poison centers were evaluated. The seizure was more in patients received naloxone compared to control group. From 87 tramadol cases, 8 patients received naloxone in which 1 case experienced seizure immediately after naloxone administration. However, the seizure risk factors such as a previous history of tramadol misuse, seizure, and blood glucose level had not been reported in their study which may be limiting factors. Also, urine drug screen had not been reported in 68 from 87 cases for possible co-ingestion to show the effect of drug-induced seizure. In the second study, Farzaneh et al. evaluated 124 patients with tramadol poisoning and randomized them into two groups, those with conservative management and those received 0.8 mg naloxone. A seizure episode had been observed more in patients received naloxone (24% versus 9%) which was significant. Although patients with co-ingestion and some predisposing factor for seizure including low blood glucose, abnormal renal function, electrolyte abnormality had been excluded in their study. However, 4.8% of patients receiving naloxone had a previous history of seizure, and 12.9% cases with seizure had a history of tramadol misuse.
Four studies included in the meta-analysis showed different results and naloxone reduced the risk of seizure.,,, In a retrospective review by Marquardt et al. on 190 tramadol exposures and seizure did not happen in patients received naloxone. Co-ingestion as a possible risk factor for seizure had been considered as an exclusion criterion in their study. The frequency of seizure in patients received naloxone was less (5.1%) compared to control group (14.1%) in a study by Eizadi -Mood, on 104 cases of tramadol poisoning, although the rate of seizure in the naloxone group was lower, logistic regression did not support the protective effect of naloxone on seizure induced by tramadol exposure. Patients with past history of seizure or epilepsy and co-ingestion with drugs induced seizure had been excluded. Hassanian-Moghaddamet al. evaluated the prevalence and predisposing factors of apnea in tramadol poisoning. A seizure episode happened in one of the patients received naloxone who was also tramadol misuser. Ryan and Isbister investigated the effects of tramadol overdose. Nine patients received naloxone and no seizure was observed. Past history of seizure, tramadol misuse, co-ingestion had not been mentioned in the group received naloxone which may be a limitation of their study.
One of the major limitations of our meta-analysis is the quality of studies. Only one randomized-controlled trial (RCT) article had our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Also as the publication bias has existed in the studies included in our meta-analysis, more researches need to confirm that naloxone increases the risk of seizure. Considering of ethical guidelines, many researchers may not conduct RCT research. Secondly, due to the limited resources, we could get only articles in English.
In conclusion, Naloxone therapy did not increase the risk of seizure significantly in the treatment of acute tramadol poisoning. We suggest considering the risk/benefit when administration naloxone, especially for the seizure risk factors including previous history of seizure, tramadol misuse, and co-ingestion. Also, it might be suggested to perform an RCT study using a combination of diazepam/naloxone for tramadol overdose toxicity which has shown the beneficial effect in an animal study performed by Lagard et al.
We would like to thank the Isfahan Clinical Toxicology Research Center and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Also the authors would like to thank the staffs of the Khorshid hospital library for their great cooperation.
Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Maliheh Ghandehari, and Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee were involved in concept and design of the study. Maliheh Ghandehari, Shiva Samasamshariat, and Erfan Sadeghi did acquisition of data. Marjan Mansourian analyzed and interpreted the data. All authors contribute in drafting the article or revising it critically. Final version of the articles was approved for publishing by all authors. The manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors.
Financial support and sponsorship
The project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with a grant number of 393904.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Caupp S, Steffan J, Shi J, Wheeler KK, Spiller HA, Casavant MJ, et al
. Opioid drug poisonings in Ohio adolescents and young adults, 2002-2014. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018;11:1-8.
Alinejad S, Zamani N, Abdollahi M, Mehrpour O. A narrative review of acute adult poisoning in Iran. Iran J Med Sci 2017;42:327-46.
Maasoumi G, Eizadi-Mood N, Akabri M, Sohrabi A, Khalili Y. Pattern of poisoning in poisoning referral center. JIMS 2012;29:1317-24.
Grond S, Sablotzki A. Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004;43:879-923.
Grasso MA, Grasso CT, Jerrard DA. Prescriptions written for opioid pain medication in the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2016. J Addict Med 2017;11:483-8.
Olsson MO, Öjehagen A, Brådvik L, Kronstrand R, Håkansson A. High rates of tramadol use among treatment-seeking adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A study of hair analysis of nonmedical prescription opioid use. Addict 2017;2017. doi: 10.1155/2017/6716929.
Marquardt KA, Alsop JA, Albertson TE. Tramadol exposures reported to statewide poison control system. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:1039-44.
Bashirian S, Barati M, Fathi Y. Prevalence and factors associated with Tramadol abuse among college students in west of Iran: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio 2014;1:e20314.
Haukka J, Kriikku P, Mariottini C, Partonen T, Ojanperä I. Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning. Addiction 2018;113:464-72.
Tjaderborn M, Jonsson AK, Hagg S, Ahlner J. Fatal unintentional intoxications with tramadol during 1995-2005. Forensic Sci Int 2007;173:107-11.
Iravani FS, Akhgari M, Jokar F, Bahmanabadi L. Current trends in tramadol-related fatalities, Tehran, Iran 2005-2008. Subst Use Misuse 2010;45:2162-71.
Gheshlaghi F, Eizadi-Mood N, Fazel K, Behjati M. An unexpected sudden death by oral tramadol intoxication: A case not reported earlier. Iranian J Toxicol 2009;2:292-4.
Eizadi-Mood N, Sabzghabaee AM, Yaraghi A, safdarai A. Clinical signs, Hospitalization duration, and outcome of tramadol intoxication. JIMS 2011;28:1187-93.
Mehrpour O, Sharifi M, Zamani N. Tramadol Poisoning 2015:101-26. doi: 10.5772/60439.
Shadnia S, Soltaninejad K, Heydari K, Sasanian G, Abdollahi M. Tramadol intoxication: A review of 114 cases. Hum Exp Toxicol 2008;27:201-5.
Thundiyil JG, Kearney TE, Olson KR. Evolving epidemiology of drug-induced seizures reported to a Poison Control Center System. J Med Toxicol 2007;3:15-9.
Gasse C, Derby L, Vasilakis-Scaramozza C, Jick H. Incidence of first-time idiopathic seizures in users of tramadol. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:629-34.
Goodarzi F, Mehrpour O, Eizadi-Mood N. A study to evaluate factors associated with seizure in Tramadol poisoning in Iran. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 2011;5:66-9.
Talaie H, Panahandeh R, Fayaznouri M, Asadi Z, Abdollahi M. Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol. J Med Toxicol 2009;5:63-7.
Taghaddosinejad F, Mehrpour O, Afshari R, Seghatoleslami A, Abdollahi M. Factors related to seizure in tramadol poisoning and its blood concentration. J Med Toxicol 2011;7:183-8.
Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Tramadol: Seizures, serotonin syndrome, and coadministered antidepressants. Psychiatry (Edgmont) 2009;6:17-21.
Boostani R, Derakhshan S. Tramadol induced seizure: A 3-year study. Caspian J Intern Med 2012;3:484-7.
Tanné1 C, Javouhey E, Millet A, Bordet F. Severe tramadol overdoses in children: A case series admitted to paediatric intensive care unit. J Clin Toxicol 2016;6:317. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000317.
Ben T, Raymond Y, Stacey M, Thomas E. Comparative toxicity of tapentadol and tramadol utilizing data reported to the national poison data system. Ann Pharmacother 2015;49:1311-6.
Lanier RK, Lofwall MR, Mintzer MZ, Bigelow GE, Strain EC. Physical dependence potential of daily tramadol dosing in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;211:457-66.
Saidi H, Ghadiri M, Abbasi S, Ahmadi SF. Efficacy and safety of naloxone in the management of post seizure complaints of tramadol intoxicated patients. Emerg Med J 2010;27:928e930.
Tashakori A, Afshari R. Tramadol overdose as a cause of serotonin syndrome: A case series. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2010;48:337-41.
Rehni AK, Singh I, Kumar M. Tramadol-induce seizurogenic effect: A possible role of opioid-dependent gamma-aminobutyric and inhibitory pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103:262-6.
Gilbert PE, Martin WR. Antagonism of the convulsant effects of heroin, d-propoxyphene, meperidine, normeperidine and thebaine by naloxone in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1975;192:538-41.
Rehni AK, Singh TG, Singh N, Arora S. Tramadol induced seizurogenic effect: A possible role of opioid-dependent histamine H1 receptor activation linked mechanism. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2010;381:11-9.
Eizadi-Mood N, Ozcan D, Sabzghabaee AM, Mirmoghtadaee P, Hedaiaty M. Does naloxone prevent seizure in tramadol intoxicated patients? Int J Prev Med 2014;5:302-7.
Lagard C, Malissin I, Indja W, Risède P, Chevillard L, Mégarbane B. Is naloxone the best antidote to reverse tramadol-induced neuro-respiratory toxicity in overdose? An experimental investigation in the rat. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017;17:1-7.
Farzaneh E, Samadzadeh M, Shahbazzadegan B, Sayadrezai I, Mostafazadeh B, Sarbandi Farahani A, et al
. Comparing the frequency of seizure in patients intoxicated with tramadol treated with or without naloxone. J Isfahan Med School 2012;197:1012-18.
Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Farnaghi F, Rahimi M. Tramadol overdose and apnea in hospitalized children, a review of 20 cases. Res Pharm Sci 2015;10:544-552.
Spiller HA, Gorman SE, Villalobos D, Benson BE, Ruskosky DR, Stancavage MM, et al
. Prospective multicenter evaluation of tramadol exposure. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35:361-4.
Farzaneh E, Mostafazadeh B, Mehrpour O. Seizurogenic effects of low-dose naloxone in tramadol overdose. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2012;11:6-9.
Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Farajidana H, Sarjami S, Owliaey H. Tramadol-induced apnea. Am J Emerg Med 2013;31:26-31.
Ryani N, Isbister G. Tramadol overdose causes seizures and respiratory depression but serotonin toxicity appears unlikely. Clin Toxicol 2015;53:545-50.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]