• Users Online: 259
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77

Systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of work life in Iran (2011–2017)


1 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2 Master of Information Technology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Allied Medical Scinces, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
4 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

Date of Submission09-Oct-2018
Date of Acceptance29-May-2019
Date of Web Publication03-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Diana Sarokhani
Master of Information Technology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam
Iran
Leila Jouybari
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.288968

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Quality of work life (QWL) is considered as a universal concept in human resource management and organizational development, and its promotion is the key to the success of organizations' management. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QWL in Iran through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: In this study, all articles related to the QWL in Iran during the years 2011–2017 were systemically reviewed by searching national and international databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, SID, Magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medlib, and the Google Scholar search engine using valid keywords. The results of the studies were combined using the random effects model. The heterogeneity of studies was studied using the I2 index. Data analysis was done using STATA ver 11. Results: The mean QWL score of 15,323 samples were 60.13, 36.80, 76.19, 58.90, 68.78, 50.69, 32.24, 8.01, 70.63, 39.70, and 44.41 based on Walton, Casio, Sirgy, Mirsepasi, SF-36, Ghasem zadeh, Dehghan, Dargahi, NIOSH, Venlar, Quality of nursing work life questionnaires, respectively. Meta-regression showed that the QWL of employees had no significant relationship with the sample size and years of research. Conclusions: The mean score of QWL in Iranian employees was 56.90, with the highest and the lowest score for the questionnaire.

Keywords: Iran, meta-analysis, quality of work life (QWL)


How to cite this article:
Sanagoo A, Sarokhani D, Dehkordi AH, Sayehmiri K, Jouybari L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of work life in Iran (2011–2017). Int J Prev Med 2020;11:77

How to cite this URL:
Sanagoo A, Sarokhani D, Dehkordi AH, Sayehmiri K, Jouybari L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of work life in Iran (2011–2017). Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 20];11:77. Available from: http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2020/11/1/77/288968




  Introduction Top


Quality of life is a significant criterion that illustrates the inefficiency of health care, physical, mental, and psychological status.[1] The quality of life, in a way, expresses the status of people living in a country or region. Early thinking about quality of life has focused on individual concern and priority, but in recent years, the theoretical debate has shifted from social focus to social concerns such as security, freedom, the extent of quality of work life (QWL), and the structure and quality of social relationships of individuals in society.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] QWL is a comprehensive program that increases the consent of members, supports the acquisition of knowledge or skills, and supports them to manage change.[7],[8]

In other words, employees' satisfaction with the fulfillment of their needs through the resources, activities, and outcomes resulting from engagement in the workplace is called the QWL.[9] The concept of QWL was first introduced in 1930 and was first described by Walton in the 1970s. He suggested that QWL is classified in eight areas: fair and adequate pay, a safe and healthy working environment, human capacity development, the opportunity for growth and sustained security, social integration and solidarity, legalism, the overall living space, and social affiliation. In the cases mentioned by Walton, there is a collection of actual working conditions in an organization.[10]

The term “QWL” has become widespread in recent years. The reason might be that this variable refers to a set of results for employees such as job satisfaction, growth opportunities, psychological issues, job security, employer–employee relationship, and low incidence rates.[11] The QWL in each organization is essential for the attraction and maintenance of employees.[12] In general, the QWL represents a kind of organizational culture or management style, based on which employees feel ownership, autonomy, responsibility, and self-esteem, and the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization increase through promoting the status of the individuals.[13] Since the QWL is dynamic and multidimensional, it includes concepts such as job security, reward systems, educational and career development opportunities, and participation in decision-making.[7],[8] Cole et al. concluded in their research that improving the QWL of employees in any organization, especially in occupations, such as nursing, in which employees are in contact with humans, is of great importance and affects different levels of work. Moreover, Hood and Smith also concluded that QWL affects staff performance.[14],[15]

Several studies have been conducted in different regions of Iran with the aim of evaluating the QWL, but there is still no general estimate of the QWL in Iran, and they estimated QWL difference in studies. So, an overall and reliable estimate of QWL in Iran is not available. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the QWL according to different scales, components, sex, job, city, and marital status in Iran.


  Methods Top


Protocol of study

We registered the study protocol on the PROSPERO site (ID: 128051, Date: 09/03/2019).

Search strategy

The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted through a review of existing articles published during the years 2011–2017. To access the documentations conducted in Iran, national and international databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, SID, Magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medlib, and the Google Scholar search engine, were searched using valid keywords. This study was conducted based on preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA).[16] To maximize the search comprehensiveness, national databases were searched using general Persian keywords such as “” and for international databases “quality of work life,” “score of quality of work life,” “meta-analysis,” and “Iran”, the English equivalents, MeSH keywords, and their combinations were used with AND/OR operators. To find more studies, the references of articles were searched manually.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteria were the studies that examined the QWL in Iran during 2011–2017. Exclusion criteria were studies conducted in countries other than Iran, studies with nonrandom sample size, studies outside the period of 2011–2017, studies that did not have the required quality, and studies that did not include the required data (such as score of QWL or its dimensions or number of samples).

Qualitative assessment of studies

The standard, international STROBE checklist[17] was used to assess the quality of studies. This checklist consists of 22 different sections with a score of 0 if the item is absent and 1 if the item is present in the study. The total score was between 0 to 44. The study with score less than 11 were not included in the study.

Data extraction

To reduce bias and error in data collection, two researchers independently extracted data from the articles using data extraction form, including name of author, year of study, place of study, sample size, QWL score and its components, number of women and men, name of the questionnaire, and statistical community.

Questionnaires

Walton's questionnaire

The first part of the questionnaire consists of 10 items about the demographic variables of the staff and the second part contains 31 items about the QWL, which are in eight dimensions. The “fair and adequate payment” dimension includes three items; “safe and healthy work environment” includes five items; “development of human capabilities” includes five items; “growth and security opportunities” includes four items; “integration and social cohesion” includes four items; “legalism” includes four items; “the overall space of life” includes two items; and “social affiliation and work life” includes four items.[18] The questionnaire is based on a five-degree spectrum (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high) and is divided into three levels—low, moderate, and high. The scoring range is between 24 and 120.[13]

Casio's questionnaire

This questionnaire, which includes six indices (material privileges, education, democracy in participation, participating in decision making, job design, and designing the organization workspace), was designed by Casio et al. in the form of 29 questions in the Likert spectrum—a score of 1 to 5 and a scoring range of 29–145. The reliability of the tool in previous research was also expressed by the Cronbach's alpha of 0.86, which indicates its internal consistency.[19]

Quality of nursing work life questionnaire

It includes four dimensions of QWL and 44 questions with a measurement scale on a 6-point Likert spectrum. Personal life dimension with eight questions, work framework with 10 questions, background dimension with 20 questions, and global dimension of work with six questions were measured and evaluated.[20]

Dargahi's questionnaire

It is evaluated in the form of 30 components and is adjusted based on a 5-option Likert spectrum (from “totally agree” to “totally disagree”).[21]

Dhegihan Naeeri's questionnaire contains 45 items on the Likert scale (from very high to very low). On this scale, a score of 1–5 is assigned to each item, with a score of 5 for very high and a score of 1 for very low.[22]

Qhasemzadeh's questionnaire

This questionnaire has 53 questions designed by Ghasemzadeh and Ahmadi.[23] Responses are on a Likert spectrum. The internal consistency of this questionnaire has been reported by Cronbach's alpha of 0.96.[24]

Statistical analysis

Considering that the QWL score and its subgroups score were quantitative, the mean and standard deviation of these indices were extracted in each study and the variance of the mean was calculated using normal distribution . To pool the results of studies, we used the metan command in STATA ver 11. Considering the heterogeneity of the studies, a random effects model was used to combine the results of the studies. The I2 index was used to investigate the heterogeneity of the studies. In studies that showed the percentage of quality of life and qualitatively assessed the QWL, the variance of each study was calculated using binomial distribution. Meta-regression was used to check heterogeneity among the studies and to find any association between the year of study and the sample size with QWL. Subgroup analysis was done according to sex, components, and questionnaire. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA development services in Chicago (STATA ver. 11). The significance level of the tests was considered to be P < 0.05.


  Results Top


Overall, the sample size in the 80 papers reviewed during the period 2011–2017 was 15,323 people. The characteristics of the examined articles are listed and the flowchart of the entry of studies into this meta-analysis is presented in Chart 1 and [Table 1].
Table 1: Data extracted from articles that were entered into the meta-analysis process

Click here to view


The mean scores of QWL based on Walton, Casio, Sirgy, Mirsepasi, F-36, Ghasem zadeh, Dehghan, Dargahi, NIOSH, Venlar, Quality of nursing work life questionnaires were 60.13 (95% CI: 57.09–63.16), 36.80 (95% CI: 0–106.18), 76.19 (95% CI: 35.72–116.66), 58.90 (95% CI: 56.28–61.51), 68.78 (95% CI: 66.28–71.27), 50.69 (95% CI: 0–105.51), 32.24 (95% CI: 0–91.92), 8.01 (95% CI: 0–18.79), 70.63 (95% CI: 69.40–71.85), 39.70 (95% CI: 37.10–42.29), and 4.41 (95% CI: 14.42–74.41), respectively [Table 2]. According to the Walton's questionnaire, the prevalence of good work life was 6%, relatively good work life was 74%, and poor work life was 21% [Table 3] and [Figure 1].
Table 2: The mean score of QWL in Iran (2011-2017) by different questionnaires

Click here to view
Table 3: Good, Fair, and Week QWL standards based on the Walton's questionnaire

Click here to view
Figure 1: The mean score of the quality of working life based on the name of the author and the year of the research by the questionnaires (on the basis of 100)

Click here to view


The meta-regression analysis showed no significant relationship between the mean score of QWL in Iran and the sample size (P = 0.696) [Figure 2]. In addition, no significant relationship was found between the mean score of QWL in Iran and the year of the research (P = 0.151) [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Relationship between the mean QWL (2011–2017) in Iran and sample size using the meta-regression model. QWL: Quality of work life

Click here to view
Figure 3: Relationship between the mean QWL (2011–2017) in Iran and the year of the research using the meta-regression model. QWL: Quality of work life

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the QWL in Iran during 2011–2017. In 80 articles with a sample size of 15,323 people, the mean QWL score based on Walton Casio, Sirgy, Mirsepasi, SF-36, Ghasem zadeh, Dehghan, Dargahi, NIOSH, Venlar, and Quality of nursing work life questionnaires were 60.13, 36.80, 76.19, 58.90, 68.78, 50.69, 32.24, 8.01, 70.63, 39.70, and 44.41, respectively.

Similar to the study results of Dracup et al., Testa and Simonson, and Boonrod, the mean QWL score of women was slightly higher than that of men, which did not show significant differences between the two genders.[25],[26],[27]

However, the study results are not consistent with those of Tajuddin and Ullah who conducted their study in general hospitals in Bangladesh that reported low QWL of the employees.[103] The results of other research report a correlation between the QWL and the performance of the employees as well as between the components of the QWL and the performance of the staff. The legislation of the organization, social affiliation, working life, safe working environment, opportunities for continuous growth, development of human capabilities, the general spatial life, and fair pay are highly correlated with employee performance.[9],[104]

Moreover, another study reported that nurses with high quality of life had more clinical competence, thus proving a positive and significant correlation between the QWL and the clinical competence of nurses.[105]

The meta-regression analysis showed no significant relationship between the mean score of QWL in Iran and the sample size (P = 0.696) [Figure 2]. In other words, increasing the number of samples did not result in increased average QWL quality in Iran. There was no significant relationship between the mean score of QWL in Iran and the year of the research (P = 0.151) [Figure 3]. Between 2011 and 2017, the QWL in Iran increased slightly but was not statistically significant.

Other studies reported a significant relationship between QWL and productivity of the nurses. The productivity increases as employees get happier and more satisfying.[106] Results showed that the case group had a significant difference between the scores of motivational factors (P = 0.001), total score of job satisfaction (P = 0.003), and scores of some QWL components including capacity utilization and development (P = 0.008), total living space (P = 0.003), and total QWL scores (P = 0.030) as compared to the control group.[107]

Hamburg et al. reported that the quality of life of workers will improve by increasing the salary levels.[108] A study in Chicago reported that the QWL of nurses working in Intensive Care Units is low.[109] Kintner states that employed people have a better work life than the unemployed.[110] Among people who had a job, those with higher academic 1qualifications, because of having more important jobs, can have a better work life.[111] Lees and Kearns. stated that the more work experience employees had, the higher their satisfaction and QWL were.[112] The results of other studies showed that increasing the QWL of the organization leads to increased productivity, reduced costs, absence, and increased employee participation in the organization.[16] In addition, QWL affects personnel performance and reaches its maximum goals by increasing the QWL of the organization.[21] There is a direct and positive relationship between the QWL and performance optimization as increased QWL results in increased performance and improvements.

The strengths of our study were the large sample size, diversity of population, regions, age group, scale, and duration of studies (2011-2017).

Limitations

There were many limitations to this study such as use of different tools for QWL analysis, lack of published articles in some cities and some jobs, and heterogeneity among populations.

We suggest conducting a QWL survey in the cities as we do not have any estimation about QWL in the cities. In low QWL regions, the risk factors for low QWL should be identified and intervened to improve the QWL.


  Conclusion Top


The mean score of QWL in Iranian employees was 56.90 (95% CI: 49.59–64.20), with the highest and the lowest scores for the questionnaire. However, given the varying number of studies conducted in each subgroup, it is not possible to accurately compare the results of the different questionnaires.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ghiasi B, Sarokhani D, Hasanpour Dehkordi A, Sayehmiri K, Heidari M. Quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease in Iran: Systematic review and meta analysis. Indian J Palliat Care 2018;24:104-11.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
2.
Mokhtari Z, Gheshlagh RG, Kurdi A. Health-related quality of life in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: An updated meta-analysis. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews. 2018.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Farajzadeh M, Gheshlagh RG, Sayehmiri K. Health related quality of life in Iranian elderly citizens: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Community Based Nursing and Midwifery 2017;5:100.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Asadi Noghabi AA, Zandi M, Mehran A, Alavian SM, Dehkordi AH. The effect of education on quality of life in patients under interferon therapy. Hepat Mon 2010;10:218-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shahbazi K, Solati K, Hasanpour-Dehkordi A. Comparison of hypnotherapy and standard medical treatment alone on quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized control trial. J Clin Diagnc Res 2016;10:OC01-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hassanpour-Dehkordi A, Jalali A. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the fatigue and quality of life among Iranian aging persons. Acta Medica Iranica 2016;54:430-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shahbazi B, Vaezi M, Sanaiepour H. A survey of relationship between the quality of work life and performance of Department Chairpersons of Esfahan University and Esfahan Medical Science University. J Public Administration (JPA) 2009;1:69-84.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dolan S, Garcia S, Cabezas C, Tzafrir S. Predictors of quality of work and poor health among primary health care personnel in Catalonia: Evidence based on crosssectional, retrospective and longitudinal design. Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2008;21:203-18.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Goudarznand-Chegini M, Mirdoozandeh SG. Relationship between quality of work-life and job satisfaction of the employees in public hospitals in Rasht. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (ZJRMS) 2012;14:108-11.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Walton R. Quality of working life: What is it?. Sloan Manage Rev 1973;15:11-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Mohammadi A, Sarhanggi F, Ebadi A, Daneshmandi M, Reiisifar A, Amiri F, et al. Relationship between psychological problems and quality of work life of Intensive Care Units Nurses. Iran J Crit Care Nur 2011;4:135-40.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gan W, Davies H, Demers P. Exposure to occupational noise and cardiovascular disease in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999- 2004. Occup Environ Med 2011;68:183-90.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Khaghanizadeh M, Ebadi A, Cirati nair M, Rahmani M. The study of relationship between Jobstress and quality of work life of nurses in military hospitals. J Mil Med 2008;10:175-84.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Cole D, Robson L, Lemieux-Charles L, McGuire W. Quality of working life indicators in Canadian health care organizations: A tool for healthy, health care workplaces?. Occup Med (Lond) 2005;55:5-11.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Hood J, Smith H. Quality of work life in home care: The contributions of leaders' personal concern for staff. J Nurs Adm 2000;24:40-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev J 2015;4:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Von Elm E, Altman D, Egger M, Pocock S, Gøtzsche P, Vandenbroucke J. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ 2007;335:806-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Lee Y, Dai Y, Park C, McCreary L. Predicting quality of work life on nurses' intention to leave. J Nurs Scholarsh 2013;45:160-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Alizadeh F. Examining Relationship between_Quality of Work Life and Productivity in Sosial Security Organization_Hospitals. MAThesis in PersianTehranIslamic Azad_University, Science and Research Branch; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Brooks B, Anderson M. Defining quality of nursing work life. Nurs Econ 2005;23:319.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Dargahi H, Gharib M, Goodarzi M. Quality of Work Life in Nursing Employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences Hospitals. Hayat 2007;13:13-21.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Dehghan Naeeri N, Salsali T, Asadi Noghabi A. Assessing the quality of work life, productivity of nurses and their relationship. IJNR 2009;8:27-37.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Ghasemzadeh A, Ahmadi S. The effect based on DAWIS theory of work adjustment on quality of work life on Isfahan municipality employees. Counseling Res and Dev 2010;8:47-59.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Nasl Saraji G, Dargahi H. Study of quality of work life (QWL). Iranian J Pub Health 2006;35:8-14.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Dracup K, Walden J, Stevenson L, Brecht M. Quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 1992;11:273-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Testa M, Simonson D. Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med 1996;334:835-40.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Boonrod W. Quality of working life: Perceptions of professional nurses at phramongkutklao hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:S7-15.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Seifi L, Asgari A. Work Life Quality and Burnout of Public Librarians of South Khaorsan in Iran. Res Infor Sci Public Libr 2017;22:631-51.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Arab M, Shabaninejad H, Rashidian A, Rahimi A, Purketabi K. A survey on working life quality of specialists working in affiliated hospitals of TUMS. J Hosp 2013;11:19-24.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Nasiripour A, Pourmotahari M. The relationship between quality of working life and work-family conflict among nurses of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' Hospitals. J Hosp 2015;13:145-51.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Zarei G, Zarei E, Marzban S. The correlation between quality of working life and turnover intention: A study among employees of health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Pejouhandeh 2014;19:200-6.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Omidi H, Karami A, Asgari M, Ghasem Tabar N. The effectiveness of reverse theory components on job motivation and improving the quality of working life in employed people. Consul Res 2011:77-96.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Hadizadeh Talasaz Z, Nourani Saadoldin S, Shakeri M. Relationship between components of quality of work life with job satisfaction among midwives in Mashhad, 2014. Hayat 2015;21:56-67.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Abdollahzade F, Asghari E, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Mohammadi F, Rohani A, Mardani Kivi M. Predictive factors of quality of work life among operating room nurses in training hospitals of Tabriz. J Guilan Univ of Med Sci 2016;25:57-68.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Shafipour V, Momeni B, Yazdani Charati J, Esmaeili R. Quality of working life and its related factors in critical care unit nurses. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016;26:117-26.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Shojaei P, Khazaei F. Correlation between spiritual leadership and the quality of working life in employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (2011). J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2013;16:61-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Marzban S, Najafi M, Asefzadeh S, Gholami S, Rajaee R. Effect of workload on quality of work life among staff of the teaching hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (2014). J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2016;20:63-9.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Rostami R, Mohammadi A, Nazari M, Vaysmoradi A, Bahrayni S. The effect on the quality of working life, job performance mediating psychological empowerment of citizens. Urban Manag 2015; Winter: 309-22.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Hatam A, Rezaei S, Kouchaki Nejad L, Yousefzadeh S. Role of organizational justice, organizational commitment and job satisfaction on quality of work life: Case study of Pour-Sina state hospital personnel in Rasht. J Hosp 2015;13:133-44.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Zamanian Z, Nikeghbal K, Ebrahimi H. A survey on the relationship between dentists' workplace conditions and their quality of life in 2014. The J Toloo-e-behdasht (TB) 2016;14:24-32.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Parsa S, Kasraie S, Abdi R, Radmanesh M, Ghasemzade A. The relationship between quality of work life, performance, stress, job satisfaction. Soc Welfare 2014;14:61-83.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Pourghaz A, Salehi S. Organizational support and its relationship with quality of working life of power department staff in Zabol City. Public Manag Res 2016 Summer 9:97-116.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Arab Feizabadi S, Karim Zade S, Shahraki Poor H, N1aei N. Prediction of teachers' job performance based on walton quality of work life model. J Modern Thoughts in Edu 2014;10:63-78.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Ardalan M, Ghanbari S, Mohamadi Shahed E. A Study of Relationship between Organizational Diagnosis and QWL (Quality of Work Life) whit Organization Management Effectiveness in The Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch. Quart J Sci Res New Approach Educl Manag 2016Winter 7:83-108.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Navidian A, Saber S, Rezvani Amin M, Kianian T. Correlation of quality of work life and job satisfaction in nurses of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. JHPM 2014;3:7-15.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Zarei E, Ahmadi F, Danshkohan A, Ramezankhani A. The correlation between organizational commitment and the quality of working life among staff of Sarpolzahab health network. JHPM 2016;5:61-9.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Amrollahi A, Ghalavandi H, Sayed Abbaszade M. A study of the relationship between the quality of the staff work life with their productivity in Tabriz. Quart J Educ Leadership Manag 2014;8:9-26.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Lourak agh Z, Najafabadi A, Ziaei M, Torkashvand M. Survey of relationship between job stress, quality of working life and emotion regulation with family satisfaction between staff. J Analitical-Cognitive Psycholoy 2016 Spring and Summer 7:21-31.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Malaei Zarandi A, Mokhtari Dinani M, Nazarian Madavani A. Relationship between quality of work life and perceived organizational performance in youth and sports ministry's staff. J Hum Resource Manag Sport 2016;3:205-19.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Mahmoodi G, Alfajr Asadi Majre A, Darvishi Khezri H. Relationship between personality dimensions and fatigue with quality of work life of health care workers. Quart J Breeze Health 2015;2:25-30.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Ghazanfari F, Hashemi S. The relationship between quality of occupational life and motivation progress in health team of Ashayer hospital in Khorramabad. J Clin Nurs Midwifery 2017;6:30-9.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Imani B, Karamporian A, Hamidi Y. The relationship between quality of work life and job stress in employees the foundation of martyrs and veterans Affairs of Hamadan. J Mil Med 2014;15:253-7.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Ebrahiminejad M, Zare F, Rezaee Z, Hosseni S. Investigating the relationship between quality of work life (QWL) and professional ethical culture among managers of technical and vocational training organization of Kerman. Public Manag Res 2016;9:107-24.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Zakerian S, Heidar Teymuri G, Ahmadnezhad I, Abbassinia M, Rahmani A, Asghari M. Investigating the dimensions of quality of work life and its relation to job satisfaction in an automotive industry. J Ergon 2014 Winter 1:36-46.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Choobineh A, Daneshmandi H, Parand M, Ghobadi R, Haghayegh A, Zare F. The survey of quality of work life and determination of its related factors in shiraz university of medical sciences staff. J Ergon 2013;1:56-62.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Mohsenpour M, Abbaszadeh A, Rakhshani M, Sadeghi Bimorgh M, Soolmaz Mousavi S. Relationship between quality of work life and personality-profession compatibility of nurses: A case study in sabzevar university of medical sciences in 2013. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2016;23:526-31.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Sabeghi F, Raeisi Ahovan E. Explaining the relationship between addiction to work and the quality of work life of the primary teachers of Kahnouj. J Edu Psychology Studies 2014:101-16.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Islami S, Noruzi Chakeli A, Zareei H. A Survey on the viewpoints of managers of public libraries in Mazandaran province regarding their quality of work life and their role in their performance. Sociology (Library and Information Science and Information Technology). 2012 Spring; 5:1-17.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Mogharab M, Reyasi H, Hedayati H, Mogharab M. Work life quality of nurses working in educational hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences, 2012. Mod Care J 2013;10:84-90.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Mohammadi Puya S, Dehghan M. Investigates relations among Philosophic Mindedness, education philosophy and quality of work life in teachers student. Educl Manag Innovation 2016 Autumn 11:105-20.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Naeimi G, Nazari A, Sanai Zaker B. A study of relationship between qulaity of work life and work-family conflict with job performance among married men employee. Quarterly J Career and Org Couns 2012;4:57-72.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Parsa A, Mahani O. Comparative study of managers' work life quality and organizational health of schools in public and private schools of Ahvaz. Quart J Educ Leadership Manag 2013;7:23-40.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Ghanbari S, Hemati M. Investigating the relationship between quality of work life and self-efficacy of elementary school teachers in Hamedan. Quart J Manag Leadership 2014 Spring; 9:117-34.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Rezaei L, Rezaei H. Relationship between the quality of work life, and job satisfaction in the employees of Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan branch. J Modern Industrial, Org Psychol 2011 Autumn 2:39-49.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Jalilpour P, Akbari Shaye Y, Pirouz Far M. Relationship between the quality of work life and occupational attachment among librarians of libraries of Shahid Chamran universities and Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz. J Libr Inform Res 2013 Spring and Summer; 3:51-66.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Khosravizadeh E, Khalaji H, Shavandi N. The status of physical activity, the quality of work life and occupational stress of Arak employees. Contemporary Res Sport Manag 2013 Autumn & Winter; 3:61-72.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Foroghinia M, Porshafeei H, Khamsan A, Khoshbakhti J. The quality of work life and the explanation of predictive role of its components in psychological empowerment of primary teachers. Biennial J Manag Planning in Educ Syst 2013;6:88-110.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Saber S, Borhani F, Navidian A, Ramezani T, Rezvani Amin M, Kianian T. The relationship between quality of work life and productivity of hospital nurses in Kerman university of medical sciences in 2012. Quart J Biological Ethics 2013 Autumn: 144-66.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Fatollahzadeh F. A survey on the relationship between the components of quality of work life with organizational commitment among librarians of public libraries of West Azerbaijan province. Quart J Inform Knowledge Manag 2015 Winter; 2:62-70.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Bakhshi E, Kalantari R. Investigating the quality of work life and job performance and their relationship with demographic and contextual factors in healthcare workers. J Occup Hyg 2016;3:31-7.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Marofi M, Mousaviasl F, Hemati Z. The relationship between burnout and quality of work life in pediatrics and NICU nurse. JPEN 2016;3:9-15.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Mohammadi J, Azizi A, Dehghan Manshadi S. The relationship between moral sensitivity quality of nursing work life in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Community Health J 2016;9:9-17.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Farsi Z, Rajaei N, Habibi H. The relationship between burnout and quality of working life in nurses of AJA hospitals in Tehran. MCS 2015;1:63-72.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Jannati A, Sabaghi R, Ghodusi Nejad J, Baghban Baghestan E. A Survey on the quality of work life of physicians working in Tabriz Health Center in 2013. Health Image 2014;5:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Banidavoodi S, Jafari l, Ali Chitgar E, Moghimzadeh Hendijani F. Examination of Relationship between quality of work life and productivity in nurses of elected hospital in Ahvaz. Quart J Ethic Cult Nurs Midwifery 2014;1:33-44.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Ardalan M, Sar Chahani Z. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and quality of work life and maturity of primary teachers in district 2 of Shiraz. New Approach to Educ Manag 2014;5:81-102.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Madankar A, Vakili N, Ghaed Mohamadi M. Relationship between emotional intelligence of managers and employees and quality of work life with knowledge of management in branches of Tejarat Bank in Tehran. Innovation Manag Edu (New Thoughts in Educational Sciences). 2013;8:81-92.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Rasouli B, Naghshineh N, Fahimnia F. Investigating the quality of work life experienced by public librarians in the libraries of Tehran. Res Information Sci and Public Libraries 2014;2:331-17.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Massah H, Samavatyan H. The relationships between demographic variables, emotional intelligence and three types of organizational commitment with quality of work life. J Psychol 2011 Winter 15:336-52.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Arab N, Rezai Badafshani F, Rahimi M. The mediating role of quality of work life between psychological capital and life satisfaction. Iran J Health Educ Health Promotion 2015 Spring 3:49-58.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Majidi A, Shirzad M, Shirzad H, Aghdam H, Bagheri S, Samadi S. The structural pattern of knowledge management based on the quality of work life of employees in the Clinics of NAJA. Quarterly of Order and Security Guards 2012;5:35-55.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Hashemzadeh A, Elmi M. A Study of the quality of work life of female high school teachers in Tabriz in 2011-2012. Woman Family Stud 2009;2:151-77.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Elmi M, Hashem Zade A. A Study of the relationship between quality of work life and social alienation among high school teachers in Tabriz. Sociolog Stud 2009 Winter: 7-28.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Mahdavi A, Piltan A. Investigating the relationship between the quality of working life and the empowerment of the staff of the court of audit. Audit 2012;12:45-60.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Varghaei N, Bazazian S, Jafari A. The relationship between cultural intelligence and the quality of work life and life satisfaction in school principals. Intercultural Stud 2014;9:33-52.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
Navidi I, Ghofranipour F, Taheri Z, Khorsandi M. The effect of morning exercise on quality of life among health center staff in Arak City: A short report. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci 2014;14:161-66.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.
Ghaleei A, Mohajeran B, Taajobi M, Imani B. Relationship between quality of work life and occupational stress in staff of Bu-ali Sina university of Hamadan, 2013. Pajouhan Sci J 2015;13:60-6.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.
Kamalzadeh H, Khosravi S, Sarvghad S. The relationship between organizational commitment and quality of work life and happiness. Monthly J Siman Technol 2013:31-6.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.
Bakhtiarpour S, Darabi F. Comparison of job satisfaction and quality of work life in the health center staff in Ilam University of medical sciences. Behav Sci 2011;3:9-24.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.
Zarei E, Najafi M, R R. The relationship between working life quality and turnover intention among hospital staff. J Health Field 2014 Autumn 2:25-31.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.
Momeni M, Teimur Nejad K, Sam Daliri B. A comparison of the effect of quality of work life on organizational commitment of managers. Monthly Soc Econ Sci Cult J Work Soc 2014:27-41.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.
Borhani F, Arbabisarjou A, Kianian T, Saber S. Assessment of predictable productivity of nurses working in kerman university of medical sciences' teaching hospitals via the dimensions of quality of work life. Global J Health Sci 2016;8:65-72.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.
Khammarnia M, Shahsavani F, Shahrakipour M, Barfar E. Relationship between knowledge management and quality of working life in nursing staff of Zahedan teaching hospitals, 2014. Health Scope 2015;4:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.
Heidarie A, Askary P, Saedi S, Gorjian B. Relationship between quality of work life, organizational health and commitment with job satisfaction. Life Sci J 2012;9:2300-6.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.
BagheriNesami M, Kazemi A, Goudarzian A, Nasiri Jasem F. Association between religious coping and quality of working life in nurses. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2017;11:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.
Toulabi Z, Raoufi M, Allahpourashraf Y. The relationship between teachers' happiness and quality of working life. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 2013;84:691-5.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.
Parsa B, BinIdris K, Bin Abu Samah B, Nor Wahiza Binti A, Parsa P. Relationship between quality of work life and career advancement among Iranian academics. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 2014;152:108-11.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.
Hashemi Dehaghi Z, Sheikh Taheri A. Quality of work life and job satisfaction of nursing managers. Iran J Publ Health 2014;43:537-8.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.
Maghaminejad F, Adib Hajbaghery M. Faculty members quality of work life in Kashan university of medical sciences in 2012. Nurs Midwifery Stud 2016;5:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.
Bolhari A, Rezaeean A, Bolhari J, Bairamzadeh S, Arzi Soltan A. The relationship between quality of work life and demographic characteristics of information technology staffs. Int Conference on Computer Communication Manag 2011;5:374-8.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.
Shahrokh Shahi M, Saravani M. Investigating the relationship between organizational health and burnout and quality of working life among police officers of North Khorasan province. Quart J Law Enforcement, North Khorasan Office of Applied Res FA A, North Khorasan 2017;4:78-104.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.
Sharifzadeh F, Jazini A, Mohamadi Moghadam Y. Explaining the dimensions and components of the quality of working life among the Crime Prevention Officers of Naja. Promotional Sci J 2011;6:25-40.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.
Tajuddin M, Ullah M. A study on the quality of working life in nurses of government hospitals in Bangladesh. Proc Pakistan Acad Sci 2006;43:121-9.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.
Narehan H, Hairunnisa M, Norfadzillah RA, Freziamella L. The effect of quality of work life (QWL) programs on quality of life (QOL) among employees at multinational companies in Malaysia. Proc Soc Behav Sci 2014;112:24-34.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.
Van Bogaert P, Kowalski C, Weeks SM, Clarke SP. The relationship between nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, burnout and job outcome and quality of nursing care: A cross-sectional survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2013;50:1667-77.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.
Hesam M, Asayesh H, Roohi G, Shariati A, Nasiry H. Assessing the relationship between nurses' quality of work life and their intention to leave the nursing profession. Quart J Nurs Manag 2012;1:28-36.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.
Hosseinabadi R, Karampourian A, Beiranvand S, Pournia Y. The effect of quality circles on job satisfaction and quality of work-life of staff in emergency medical services. Int Emerg Nurs 2013;21:264-70.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.
Mehrstedt M, Tonnies S, Eisentraut I. Dental fears, health status, and quality of life. Anesth Prog 2004;51:90-4.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.
Brooks B, Anderson M. Nursing work life in acute care. J Nurs Care Qual 2004;19:269-75.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.
Kintner E. Development and preliminary evaluation of the participation in life activities scale for children and adolescents with asthema: An instrument development study. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008;6:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.
Kalpaklioglu A, Baccloplu A. Evaluation of quality of life: Impact of allergic rhinitis on asthma. J Inves Allergol Clin 2008;18:168-73.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.
Lees M, Kearns S. Improving Work Life Quality: A Diagnostic Approach Model. Canada: Bluewater Health; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 112
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed197    
    Printed20    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded49    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]