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REVIEW ARTICLES
Effect of school-based interventions to control childhood obesity: A review of reviews
Maryam Amini, Abolghassem Djazayery, Reza Majdzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Taghdisi, Shima Jazayeri
2015, 6:68 (3 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.162059  PMID:26330984
Effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight and obesity among school children was reviewed for a 11-year period (January 2001 to December 2011). All English systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of reviews, policy briefs and reports targeting children and adolescents which included interventional studies with a control group and aimed to prevent or control overweight and/or obesity in a school setting were searched. Four systematic reviews and four meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results of the review indicated that implementation of multi-component interventions did not necessarily improve the anthropometric outcomes. Although intervention duration is a crucial determinant of effectiveness, studies to assess the length of time required are lacking. Due to existing differences between girls and boys in responding to the elements of the programs in tailoring of school-based interventions, the differences should be taken into consideration. While nontargeted interventions may have an impact on a large population, intervention specifically aiming at children will be more effective for at-risk ones. Intervention programs for children were required to report any unwanted psychological or physical adverse effects originating from the intervention. Body mass index was the most popular indicator used for evaluating the childhood obesity prevention or treatment trials; nonetheless, relying on it as the only indicator for adiposity outcomes could be misleading. Few studies mentioned the psychological theories of behavior change they applied. Recommendations for further studies on school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight/obesity are made at the end of this review.
  1,794 594 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidaemia: A randomized clinical trial
Negar Aslani, Mohammad Hasan Entezari, Gholamreza Askari, Zahra Maghsoudi, Mohammad Reza Maracy
2016, 7:95 (29 July 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.187248  PMID:27563431
Background: This study was performed to effects of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidemia. Methods: In a parallel-designed randomized controlled clinical trial, a total of 112 hyperlipidemic patients 30-60 years, were recruited from Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. People were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Control blood samples were taken and height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded. (1) Received 20 g of garlic daily, plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice, (2) received 20 g garlic daily, (3) received 1 tablespoon of lemon juice daily, and (4) did not receive garlic or lemon juice. A study technician was done the random allocations using a random numbers table. All participants presented 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records during 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (changes from baseline: 40.8 ± 6.1, P 0< 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (29.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001), and fibrinogen (111.4 ± 16.1, P < 0.001) in the Group 1, in comparison with other groups. A greater reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in Group 1 compared with the Groups 3 and 4 (37 ± 10, P = 0.01) (24 ± 1, P = 0.02); respectively. Furthermore, a great reduction in body mass index was observed in the mixed group compared with the lemon juice and control groups (1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Administration of garlic plus lemon juice resulted in an improvement in lipid levels, fibrinogen and blood pressure of patients with hyperlipidemia.
  2,084 272 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward
Mahaveer Golechha
2016, 7:7 (11 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.173797  PMID:26941908
Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.
  1,838 296 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of cucurbita ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption on blood glucose, lipid profile, and inflammatory marker in Type 2 Diabetes
Azade Bayat, Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari
2016, 7:30 (2 February 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.175455  PMID:26955460
Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.
  1,827 288 2
First aid knowledge among University students in Jordan
Moawiah Khatatbeh
2016, 7:24 (22 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.174772  PMID:26941925
Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.
  1,821 251 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The effect of diabetes mellitus on apoptosis in hippocampus: Cellular and molecular aspects
Akram Sadeghi, Javad Hami, Shahnaz Razavi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Zahra Hejazi
2016, 7:57 (10 March 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.178531  PMID:27076895
Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animals. These deficits are paralleled by neurophysiological and structural changes in brain. In diabetic animals, impairments of spatial learning, memory, and cognition occur in association with distinct changes in hippocampus, a key brain area for many forms of learning and memory and are particularly sensitive to changes in glucose homeostasis. However, the multifactorial pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy is not yet completely understood. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in diabetes-induce neuronal loss in hippocampus. Methods: The effects of diabetes on hippocampus and cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions in experimental models of diabetes are reviewed, with a focus on the negative impact on increased neuronal apoptosis and related cellular and molecular mechanisms. Results: Of all articles that were assessed, most of the experimental studies clearly showed that diabetes causes neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus through multiple mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inhibition of caspases, disturbance in expression of apoptosis regulator genes, as well as deficits in mitochondrial function. The balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling may determine the neuronal apoptotic outcome in vitro and in vivo models of experimental diabetes. Conclusions: Dissecting out the mechanisms responsible for diabetes-related changes in the hippocampal cell apoptosis helps improve treatment of impaired cognitive and memory functions in diabetic individuals.
  1,592 336 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of symbiotic supplementation on liver enzymes, c-reactive protein and ultrasound findings in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A clinical trial
Atefe Asgharian, Gholamreza Askari, Ahmad Esmailzade, Awat Feizi, Vida Mohammadi
2016, 7:59 (10 March 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.178533  PMID:27076897
Background: Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.005) but symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Conclusions: Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression.
  1,730 178 1
"Theory based health education: Application of health belief model for Iranian obese and overweight students about physical activity" in Urmia, Iran
Baratali Rezapour, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Hamidreza Khalkhali
2016, 7:115 (10 October 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.191879  PMID:27761217
Background: Obesity is a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physical education program (PEP) on promoting health belief model (HBM) scores, increasing physical activity (PA), and reducing obesity among Iranian high school students. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was accomplished at four high schools that were randomly divided into two groups of experiment (forty) and control (forty) male students in junior high schools in Urmia, Iran. Students in the experimental group received a PEP during 6 months. The essential parameters were used for evaluating the effects of educational program on HBM, PA, and body mass index (BMI) of students. Results: After the intervention of 3 and 6 months, the experimental group showed a significant difference on the results of HBM constructs. According to the result of repeated-measures ANOVA, there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups about the components of PA constructs. Analysis of covariance showed that although BMI reduced in 6 months after intervention, there was no significant difference in BMI. Conclusions: Results of the study revealed that implementation of PEP was effective on increasing the score of the components of HBM and PA of students.
  1,664 146 1
Psycho-social needs impact on hookah smoking initiation among women: A qualitative study from Iran
Azam Baheiraei, Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Abbas Ebadi, Roya Kelishadi, Seyed Reza Majdzadeh
2015, 6:79 (24 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.163374  PMID:26425334
Background: In Iranian women, the use of hookah is the most common method of tobacco smoking. This study aimed to find the role of psycho-social needs and gaps as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking initiation in women. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted during 2012-2013 in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six women participated in the study. They were current or former users of hookah. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Results: Four main categories were identified from the data. This study focused on the category: Psycho-social needs and gaps. This category has five sub-categories which explain why women begin to smoke hookah including curiosity; desire for non-feminine, forbidden, and negative activities; need for amusement and recreation; for others: To show off; attract attention; satisfy and join others and protection. Conclusions: From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Keeping young girls and women away from seemingly happy gatherings of hookah smokers; Providing appropriate recreational facilities for young women and training families on how to help their children in the event of a crisis-like intention to take up smoking behavior, can be some effective ways for reducing hookah smoking initiation among women.
  1,654 122 1
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Commentary on prevention a possible drug-drug interaction: Is concurrent administration of orlistat and pioglitazone increase the risk of durg-induced hepatotoxicity?
Marjan Emzhik, Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam, Soltan Ahmad Ebrahimi, Fariborz Keyhanfar, Ashraf Sadat Moazzam
2015, 6:16 (20 February 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.151825  PMID:25789148
Background: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an emerging threat to public health and are difficult to detect. To prevent DDIs and their burden, the possible DDIs should be kept in mind. We know that the obesity predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, combinational uses of antiobesity drugs and glucose-lowering drugs are very common. As the hepatotoxicity of both pioglitazone (an antidiabetic drug) and orlistat (an antiobesity drug) has been shown in some cases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of pioglitazone and orlistat in human hepatocellular cell line human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells to determine their effect on liver toxicity. Methods: Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with 25 μM Pioglitazon (Pio), 20 μM Orlistat (Orl) pioglitazone, orlistat or combination of them. The MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Results: Pioglitazone and orlistat combination caused a loss of HepG2 cell viability. While pioglitazone (25 μM) and orliatat (20 μM) alone decreased the cell viability around 91% and 85% respectively (notsignificant, P > 0.05), the combination of these two drugs reduced the amount of viable cells to 55% which was significant when compared with each drug alone (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Revealing the significant loss of viability of HepG2 cells in the combination use of pioglitazone and orlistat indicates these two drugs should not be administered at the same time to prevent their hepatotoxic effects especially in patients with liver dysfunction.
  1,252 492 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India
Arun Kumar, Md. Samiur Rahman, Md. Asif Iqubal, Mohammad Ali, Pintoo Kumar Niraj, Gautam Anand, Prabhat Kumar, Abhinav , Ashok Kumar Ghosh
2016, 7:100 (9 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188085  PMID:27625765
Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.
  1,629 104 -
Intake of nutrients, fiber, and sugar in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in comparison to healthy individuals
Hamid Zolfaghari, Gholamreza Askari, Fereydoun Siassi, Awat Feizi, Gity Sotoudeh
2016, 7:98 (9 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188083  PMID:27625763
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Although some studies have been conducted about dietary intakes of these patients, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to survey all macronutrients and micronutrients included in dietary intake of these patients for better understanding the factors influencing this disease. Methods: The present study is a case-control conducted in Isfahan city, Iran. The cases were recently diagnosed patients with NAFLD who identified by ultrasonography. The case (159) and control (158) individuals were matched in age and gender. Data of general characteristics and physical activity of individuals were collected through questionnaire. Dietary intake was also collected using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. Results: Waistline and body mass index for the case group were more than the control group (P < 0.05). Physical activity level in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and sugar in patients with NAFLD was more than healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Intake of total dietary fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease.
  1,556 166 -
Administration of lactobacillus casei and bifidobacterium bifidum ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats
Poonam Sharma, Priyanka Bhardwaj, Rambir Singh
2016, 7:102 (22 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188870  PMID:27625767
Background: The present work was planned to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Single daily dose of 1 × 10 7 cfu/ml of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both was given to Wistar rats orally by gavaging for 28 days. Glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured from blood. Glycogen from thigh muscles and liver and oxidative stress parameters from pancreas were analyzed. Results: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both to diabetic rats decreased serum FBG (60.47%, 55.89%, and 56.49%, respectively), HbA1c (28.11%, 28.61%, and 28.28%), total cholesterol (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%), triglycerides (9.935%, 8.58%, and 7.91%), low-density lipoproteins (53.27%, 53.35%, and 52.91%) and very low-density lipoproteins (10%, 8.58%, and 11.15%, respectively) and increased high-density lipoproteins (13.73%, 15.47%, and 15.47%), and insulin (19.50%, 25.80%, and 29.47%, respectively). The treatment also resulted in increase in muscle (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%) and liver (25.82%, 6.63%, and 4.02%) glycogen level. The antioxidant indexes in pancreas of diabetic rats returned to normal level with reduction in lipid peroxidation (30.89%, 46.46%, and 65.36%) and elevation in reduced glutathione (104.5%, 161.34%, and 179.04%), superoxide dismutase (38.65%, 44.32%, and 53.35%), catalase (13.08%, 27%, and 31.52%), glutathione peroxidase (55.56%, 72.23%, and 97.23%), glutathione reductase (49.27%, 88.40%, and 110.86%), and glutathione-S-transferase (140%, 220%, and 246.6%, respectively) on treatment with L. casei, B. bifidum, and combination treatment. Conclusions: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
  1,584 137 1
Antidepressant activity of enicostemma littorale blume in shp2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase)-inhibited animal model of depression
VA Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
2016, 7:112 (27 September 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.191187  PMID:27761214
Background: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. Methods: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) to young Wistar rats. E. littorale aqueous extract (100 mg/kg b.w., oral) was administered. Forced swimming test (FST), biochemical, and histopathological parameters were performed with reference to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg b.w., oral) treatment. Results: High-performance thin-layer chromatography confirmed the presence of swertiamarin, a unique glycoside present in the Gentianaceae family. FST indicated high rates of immobility in depressed groups and low rates in plant extract-administered group with reference to fluoxetine. Biochemical assays indicated significantly (P < 0.05) increased levels of total protein, superoxide dismutase, triglycerides, and total serum cholesterol, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in plant extract-administered groups in comparison to the depressed groups. Histopathological analysis indicated disorganized neuronal architecture during depression whereas rejuvenation of neuronal patterns was observed during treatment with plant extract and fluoxetine. Conclusions: This study shows that sodium orthovanadate induces depression in animals and also establishes the antidepressant activity of E. littorale.
  1,639 80 -
Life psychosocial stresses and coronary artery disease
Babak Bagheri, Fatemeh Meshkini, Kolsoum Dinarvand, Zahra Alikhani, Mal Haysom, Mehdi Rasouli
2016, 7:106 (14 September 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.190598  PMID:27833720
Background: It is hypothesized that the impacts of life events accumulate and can trigger and promote atherosclerosis in susceptible individuals. In the current study, the correlation of total life stressors during 1 year was investigated relative to coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: The study population consisted of 148 males and 152 females aged 35-76 years. The subjects were classified as CAD cases and controls according to the results of coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was scored on the basis of the number and the extent of lesions at coronary arteries. The stressful events of life were assessed using Holmes-Rahe Questionnaire and was presented as total psychological stress scores per year (TPSS). Results: The frequency of cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension was more prevalent in CAD cases than control subjects. The levels of TPSS were increased in patients with CAD compared to the controls (160.3 ± 71.3 vs. 139.8 ± 66.5, P = 0.020). TPSS was also associated positively with the levels of uric acid, erythrocytes counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aspirin consumption, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apo-AI. In logistic regression analysis, TPSS correlated with the occurrence of CAD by the odds ratio of 1.773 (1.073-2.930), P = 0.025, but the association was weakened after adjustment for classical risk factors, especially hypertension. TPSS exhibited significant association with the severity of CAD [F (3,274) = 2.6, P = 0.051]. Conclusions: The results suggest that TPSS are associated with the occurrence and severity of CAD significantly, but the association is not independent.
  1,587 123 -
High flow nasal cannula as a method for rapid weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure
Zohreh Badiee, Alireza Eshghi, Majid Mohammadizadeh
2015, 6:33 (10 April 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.154922  PMID:25949783
Background: To compare two methods of weaning premature infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Methods: Between March and November 2012, 88 preterm infants who were stable on NCPAP of 5 cmH 2 O with FIO 2 <30% for a minimum of 6 h were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) group received HFNC with flow of 2 L/min and FIO 2 = 0.3 and then stepwise reduction of FIO 2 and then flow. The non-HFNC group was maintained on NCPAP of 5 cmH 2 O and gradual reduction of oxygen until they were on FIO 2 = 0.21 for 6 h, and we had weaned them directly from NCPAP (with pressure of 5 cmH 2 O) to room air. Results: No significant differences were found between 2 study groups with regards to gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min after birth, patent ductus arteriosus and use of xanthines. The mean duration of oxygen therapy after randomization was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (20.6 ± 16.8 h vs. 49.6 ± 25.3 h, P < 0.001). Also, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (11.3 ± 7.8 days vs. 14.8 ± 8.6 days, P = 0.04). The rate of successful weaning was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusions: Weaning from NCPAP to HFNC could decrease the duration of oxygen therapy and length of hospitalization in preterm infants.
  1,320 390 4
Effects of probiotic supplementation on pancreatic β-cell function and c-reactive protein in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial
Tanaz Shoaei, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani, Awat feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Gholamreza Askari
2015, 6:27 (24 March 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.153866  PMID:25949777
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a polygenic endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age that lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic on pancreatic b-cell function and C-reactive protein (CRP) in PCOS patients. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 72 women aged 15-40 years old diagnosed with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups receiving: (1) Probiotic supplements (n = 36), (2) placebo (n = 36) for 8-week. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8-week of intervention. Results: Probiotic supplementation, compare with placebo, reduced fasting blood sugar (−4.15 ± 2.87 vs. 2.57 ± 5.66 mg/dL, respectively P = 0.7), serum insulin levels in crude model (−0.49 ± 0.67 vs. 0.34 ± 0.82 mIU/mL, respectively, P = 0.09), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance score (−0.25 ± 0.18 vs. −0.05 ± 0.18, respectively, P = 0.14) nonsignificantly. Serum insulin levels after adjustment with covariates reduced significantly in probiotic group (P = 0.02). We did not found any significant differences in mean changes of CRP between groups (−0.25 ± 0.18 vs. −0.05 ± 0.18, respectively, P = 0.14). Conclusions: A 8-week multispecies probiotics supplementation had nonsignificantly beneficial effect on pancreatic b-cell function and CRP in PCOS patients. After adjustment for some covariates, serum insulin changes were significantly different between groups.
  1,397 277 5
Diagnostic delay among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high gross domestic product per capita country: Reasons and magnitude of the problem
Wanis H Ibrahim, Faraj H Alousi, Abdulatif Al-Khal, Abdulbari Bener, Ahmed AlSalman, Aaiza Aamer, Ahmed Khaled, Tasleem Raza
2016, 7:116 (26 October 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.193091  PMID:27857829
Background: To determine the mean and median delays in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis among adults in one of the world's highest gross domestic product per capita countries and identify patient and health system-related reasons for these delays. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, face-to-face, prospective study of 100 subjects with confirmed PTB, conducted at main tuberculosis (TB) admitting facilities in Qatar. The mean and median diagnostic delays were measured. The Chi-square test with two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to determine the association between factors and diagnostic delay. Results: The mean and median total diagnostic delays of PTB were 53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.61-63.59) and 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days, respectively. The mean patient factor delay was 45.7 (95% CI 28.1-63.4) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days. The mean health system factor delay was 46.3 (95% CI 35.46-57.06) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 18-60) days. The most common cause of patient factor delay was neglect of TB symptoms by patients (in 39% of cases), and for health-care system factor delay was a failure (mostly at general and private care levels) to suspect PTB by doctors (in 57% of cases). There were no significant associations between the presence of language barrier, patient occupation or nationality, and diagnostic delay. Conclusions: Despite a favorable comparison to other countries, there is a substantial delay in the diagnosis of PTB in Qatar. Relevant actions including health education on TB are required to minimize this delay.
  1,551 89 -
The effects of nanoparticles containing iron on blood and inflammatory markers in comparison to ferrous sulfate in anemic rats
Elaheh Honarkar Shafie, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Mohammad Esmaiel Kefayati, Fatemeh Taheri, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Mohammad Reza Vafa
2016, 7:117 (26 October 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.193092  PMID:27857830
Background: Ferrous sulfate is the most used supplement for treating anemia, but it can result in unfavorable side effects. Nowadays, nanotechnology is used as a way to increase bioavailability and decrease the side effects of drugs and nutrients. This study investigates the effects of nanoparticles containing iron on blood and inflammatory markers in comparison to ferrous sulfate in anemic rats. Methods: To induce the model of hemolytic anemia, 50 mg/kg bw phenylhydrazine was injected intraperitoneally in rats on the 1 st day and 25 mg/kg bw for the four following days. Then, rats were randomly divided into five groups. No material was added to the nipple of the Group 1 (control). Group 2 received 0.4 mg/day nanoparticles of iron; Group 3 received 0.4 mg/day ferrous sulfate, and Groups 4 and 5 received double dose of iron nanoparticle and ferrous sulfate, respectively for ten days. Results: Hemoglobin and red blood cell (RBC) in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 3 (P < 0.05). In addition, hemoglobin and RBC in Group 4 and 5 were significantly higher than Group 3 (P < 0.05). The average level of serum iron in Groups 2 and 4 was remarkably more than the groups received ferrous sulfate with similar doses (P < 0.05). C-reactive protein in Group 3 was more than Group 2 and in Group 5 was more compare to all other groups. Conclusions: Single dose of nanoparticles had more bioavailability compare to ferrous sulfate, but this did not occur for the double dose. Furthermore, both doses of nanoparticles caused lower inflammation than ferrous sulfate.
  1,542 93 -
Effects of high protein and balanced diets on lipid profiles and inflammation biomarkers in obese and overweight women at aerobic clubs: A randomized clinical trial
Pegah Amini, Zahra Maghsoudi, Awat Feizi, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari
2016, 7:110 (14 September 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.190608  PMID:27833724
Background: We studied the effects of high protein (HP) and balanced diets (BDs) on lipid profiles, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and overweight women. Methods: In a parallel designed randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 healthy women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 , aged 20-46 years, enrolled in an 8-week investigation at aerobic clubs. They were categorized into two groups (HP and BDs), randomly. Fasting lipid profile and hs-CRP levels were evaluated at the beginning and end of the trial. We assessed dietary intake by 3-day records and also used SPSS (version 18; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Fifty-six participants completed the intervention. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.023 in HP group) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.002 in HP group) increased significantly in both groups. Circulating triglycerides levels increased in both intervention grows, but the change in the HP group was not significant compared with the other group (P = 0.007 in BD group vs. P =0.099 in HP group). Whereas total cholesterol concentration decreased but not significantly so (P = 0.53 in BD group vs. P =0.73 in HP group). There were marginally significant decreases in the hs-CRP levels due to both diets (P = 0.057 in BD group vs. P =0.086 in HP group); however, there were no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Administration of HP and BD in overweight and obese women with regular aerobic exercise showed improvement in lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels within the groups, but there were no significant differences between groups.
  1,552 75 -
Anticonvulsant effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) leaves ethanolic extract in mice: Role of gabaergic system
Amir Rashidian, Forogh Farhang, Habib Vahedi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Shahram Ejtemai Mehr, Saeed Mehrzadi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat
2016, 7:97 (29 July 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.187251  PMID:27563433
Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.
  1,502 116 -
Comparison of glibenclamide and insulin on neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes
Mitra Behrashi, Mansooreh Samimi, Tayyebeh Ghasemi, Farzaneh Saberi, Fatemeh Atoof
2016, 7:88 (22 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.184502  PMID:27413519
Background: Untreated or poorly controlled gestational diabetes can cause serious complications for mother and newborn. Glibenclamide is rarely used in treating mothers with this disease. This study aimed at comparing the effect of glibenclamide and insulin on neonatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 249 pregnant women aged 18-45 years within the 11 th -33 rd weeks of gestation with gestational diabetes, single fetus pregnancy, and in need of hyperglycemia treatment were entered and grouped randomly as either glibenclamide or insulin. In the insulin group (n = 129), insulin was administered with an initial dose of 0.2 IU/kg subcutaneously twice per day, whereas in the glibenclamide group (n = 120), 1.25 mg oral glibenclamide was administered once daily and increased if needed. Results: The results showed no significant difference in means age, gestational age, and body mass index between women in the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia, anomaly, hyperbilirubinemia, admission in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and neonatal respiratory distress between two groups. Macrosomia was lower in the glibenclamide group than the insulin group (3.3% vs. 13.2%, respectively, P = 0.005). Regression logistics model results showed that the type of treatment (odds ratio [OR]: 4.62; confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-14.02; P = 0.01) and gestational age at delivery (OR: 1.41; CI: 1.04-1.74; P = 0.01) were as predictor factors of macrosomia. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that glibenclamide is able to reduce the risk of fetal macrosomia without increasing neonatal anomalies, jaundice, hypocalcemia, infant respiratory distress, and NICU admission.
  1,421 177 1
Effect of tetanus-diphtheria vaccine on immune response to Hepatitis b vaccine in low-responder individuals
Abbas Haghighat, Mohammad Moafi, Jalil Sharifian, Hassan Salehi, Roya Taleban, Nader Kalbasi, Marzieh Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi Salehi, Maryam Salehi
2016, 7:94 (21 July 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.186586  PMID:27563430
Background: Conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination fails to achieve efficient protection in about 5-10% of the world population. Hence, different strategies have been adopted to ameliorate HBV antibody titers. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent application of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) and HBV vaccination on hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titer in low-responder healthy individuals. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, which was implemented among 140 of medical staff working as health-care workers assumed as low-responders. The subjects were randomly allocated to either control or interventional groups. The control and interventional groups received HBV recombinant vaccine while the latter group was also vaccinated through Td. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to measure HBs antibody (HBsAb) titers just before and 6 months after the last vaccination. All data were entered into SPSS software. Independent t-test, paired t-test, and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were applied for data comparison. Results: Antibody titers of the subjects in the intervention and control groups soared from 49.08 ± 20.08 IU/L to 917.78 ± 204.80 IU/L and from 46.95 ± 18.55 to 586.81 ± 351.77 IU/L, respectively (both P < 0.001); nevertheless, by comparison with control group, variation of antibody titer in the interventional group was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Concurrent application of Td and HBV vaccine could effectively enhance protective levels of HBsAb titers in low-responder individuals.
  1,467 119 -
Prediction of endocrine system affectation in fisher 344 rats by food intake exposed with malathion, applying naïve bayes classifier and genetic algorithms
Juan David Sandino Mora, Darío Amaya Hurtado, Olga Lucía Ramos Sandoval
2016, 7:111 (14 September 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.190611  PMID:27833725
Background: Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. Methods: It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naοve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. Results: There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions: The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands.
  1,503 77 -
The effect of an educational program based on health belief model on preventing osteoporosis in women
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Alireza Hidarnia, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Alireza Askari
2015, 6:115 (24 November 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.170429  PMID:26730345
Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased to 0.125, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of knowledge, walking, and diet on bone mass by HBM. Hence, these models can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the osteoporosis prevention.
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