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REVIEW ARTICLES
Penile inflammatory skin disorders and the preventive role of circumcision
Brian J Morris, John N Krieger
2017, 8:32 (4 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_377_16  PMID:28567234
Penile inflammatory skin conditions such as balanitis and posthitis are common, especially in uncircumcised males, and feature prominently in medical consultations. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cohrane databases using keywords “balanitis,” “posthitis,” “balanoposthitis,” “lichen sclerosus,” “penile inflammation,” and “inflammation penis,” along with “circumcision,” “circumcised,” and “uncircumcised.” Balanitis is the most common inflammatory disease of the penis. The accumulation of yeasts and other microorganisms under the foreskin contributes to inflammation of the surrounding penile tissue. The clinical presentation of inflammatory penile conditions includes itching, tenderness, and pain. Penile inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore important. While topical antifungal creams can be used, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision. Data from meta-analyses showed that circumcised males have a 68% lower prevalence of balanitis than uncircumcised males and that balanitis is accompanied by a 3.8-fold increase in risk of penile cancer. Because of the high prevalence and morbidity of penile inflammation, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients, circumcision should be more widely adopted globally and is best performed early in infancy.
  4,486 337 5
Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward
Mahaveer Golechha
2016, 7:7 (11 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.173797  PMID:26941908
Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.
  3,517 664 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidaemia: A randomized clinical trial
Negar Aslani, Mohammad Hasan Entezari, Gholamreza Askari, Zahra Maghsoudi, Mohammad Reza Maracy
2016, 7:95 (29 July 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.187248  PMID:27563431
Background: This study was performed to effects of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidemia. Methods: In a parallel-designed randomized controlled clinical trial, a total of 112 hyperlipidemic patients 30-60 years, were recruited from Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. People were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Control blood samples were taken and height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded. (1) Received 20 g of garlic daily, plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice, (2) received 20 g garlic daily, (3) received 1 tablespoon of lemon juice daily, and (4) did not receive garlic or lemon juice. A study technician was done the random allocations using a random numbers table. All participants presented 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records during 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (changes from baseline: 40.8 ± 6.1, P 0< 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (29.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001), and fibrinogen (111.4 ± 16.1, P < 0.001) in the Group 1, in comparison with other groups. A greater reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in Group 1 compared with the Groups 3 and 4 (37 ± 10, P = 0.01) (24 ± 1, P = 0.02); respectively. Furthermore, a great reduction in body mass index was observed in the mixed group compared with the lemon juice and control groups (1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Administration of garlic plus lemon juice resulted in an improvement in lipid levels, fibrinogen and blood pressure of patients with hyperlipidemia.
  3,232 502 5
Potential effects of pomegranate on lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory changes in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
2016, 7:85 (20 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.184314  PMID:27413516
Background: Daunorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity caused by oxidative stress and free radical formation. Pomegranate possessed a significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was estimations of the role of pomegranate effects in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: A total of 21 Sprague male rats were allocated into three groups, seven animals in each group. Group A: Control group received distilled water. Group B: Treated group with daunorubicin 20 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection daily for the 12 th day for total cumulative dose of 240 mg/kg. Group C: Pretreatment group with pomegranate 25 mg/kg for 6 days orally, then daunorubicin 20 mg/kg administrated concomitantly for the next 6 days with a cumulative dose of 120 mg/kg. Cardiac troponin I [cTn I] pg/ml), malondialdehyde (MDA) (ng/ml), interleukin 17 (IL-17 pg/ml), and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (pm/ml), all these biomarkers were used to measure the severity of cardiotoxicity. Results: Daunorubicin at a dose of 20 mg/kg lead to pronounced cardiac damage that reflected on through elevations of serum cTn and serum LDH levels significantly P < 0.01, it induced lipid peroxidation during cardiotoxicity that reflected through an elevation in the serum MDA significantly P < 0.01, moreover, daunorubicin induces pro-inflammatory changes in cardiotoxicity; it raises the IL-17 serum level significantly P < 0.01 as compared with control. Pomegranate pretreatment demonstrated a significant cardioprotection from daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity; it attenuated the cardiac damage through reduction of cTn, LDH, MDA, and serum IL-17 level significantly P < 0.01 as compared with daunorubicin-treated group. Conclusions: Pomegranate demonstrated significant cardioprotection in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through reduction of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pro-inflammatory, and cardiac injury biomarkers.
  3,541 192 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Effect of school-based interventions to control childhood obesity: A review of reviews
Maryam Amini, Abolghassem Djazayery, Reza Majdzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Taghdisi, Shima Jazayeri
2015, 6:68 (3 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.162059  PMID:26330984
Effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight and obesity among school children was reviewed for a 11-year period (January 2001 to December 2011). All English systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of reviews, policy briefs and reports targeting children and adolescents which included interventional studies with a control group and aimed to prevent or control overweight and/or obesity in a school setting were searched. Four systematic reviews and four meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results of the review indicated that implementation of multi-component interventions did not necessarily improve the anthropometric outcomes. Although intervention duration is a crucial determinant of effectiveness, studies to assess the length of time required are lacking. Due to existing differences between girls and boys in responding to the elements of the programs in tailoring of school-based interventions, the differences should be taken into consideration. While nontargeted interventions may have an impact on a large population, intervention specifically aiming at children will be more effective for at-risk ones. Intervention programs for children were required to report any unwanted psychological or physical adverse effects originating from the intervention. Body mass index was the most popular indicator used for evaluating the childhood obesity prevention or treatment trials; nonetheless, relying on it as the only indicator for adiposity outcomes could be misleading. Few studies mentioned the psychological theories of behavior change they applied. Recommendations for further studies on school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight/obesity are made at the end of this review.
  2,781 819 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
First aid knowledge among University students in Jordan
Moawiah Khatatbeh
2016, 7:24 (22 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.174772  PMID:26941925
Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.
  2,850 441 -
Increased waist-to-height ratio may contribute to age-related increase in cardiovascular risk factors
Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Majid Kamali, Farideh Dastsouz, Fatemeh Sadeghi, Sassan Amanat
2016, 7:68 (27 April 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.181328  PMID:27195100
Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20-50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20-50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20-29, 30-39, and 40-50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors.
  3,051 139 2
The frequency distribution of celiac autoantibodies in alopecia areata
Fatemeh Mokhtari, Tayebeh Panjehpour, Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Marzieh Matin
2016, 7:109 (14 September 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.190607  PMID:27833723
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a noncicatricial (nonscarring) alopecia. The association between AA and celiac disease (CD) is debatable. Several studies declare the relationship between AA and CD as measurement of celiac autoantibodies (anti-gliadin IgA and anti-gliadin IgG), but a few studies consider anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency distribution of celiac autoantibodies (all of them) in patients with AA compared with controls. Methods: This study is a case-control study. Thirty-five patients entered in each group. Anti-gliadin IgA, anti-gliadin IgG, and anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA were tested in all patients. Samples were examined in ELISA method with binding site's kits, and the result was reported as positive/negative. Finally, the frequency distribution of autoantibodies was examined. Results: The age average did not show a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.62). In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups based on gender (P = 0.15). The prevalence of antibody in case and control groups was 2.85% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.31). Conclusions: There may be a relationship between CD and AA, but the absence of statistical association between AA and CD does not mean that there is no relationship between gluten and AA in certain patients. Thus, we have shown here that the biological tests to search for CD do not bring information and proof enough, and it is why we recommend another approach to disclose gluten intolerance in AA patients.
  3,031 152 2
Effect of cucurbita ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption on blood glucose, lipid profile, and inflammatory marker in Type 2 Diabetes
Azade Bayat, Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari
2016, 7:30 (2 February 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.175455  PMID:26955460
Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.
  2,708 455 5
Abdominal obesity indicators: Waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in Malaysian adults population
Norfazilah Ahmad, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed Adam, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
2016, 7:82 (8 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.183654  PMID:27330688
Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist-hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.
  2,488 393 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
The effect of diabetes mellitus on apoptosis in hippocampus: Cellular and molecular aspects
Akram Sadeghi, Javad Hami, Shahnaz Razavi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Zahra Hejazi
2016, 7:57 (10 March 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.178531  PMID:27076895
Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animals. These deficits are paralleled by neurophysiological and structural changes in brain. In diabetic animals, impairments of spatial learning, memory, and cognition occur in association with distinct changes in hippocampus, a key brain area for many forms of learning and memory and are particularly sensitive to changes in glucose homeostasis. However, the multifactorial pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy is not yet completely understood. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in diabetes-induce neuronal loss in hippocampus. Methods: The effects of diabetes on hippocampus and cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions in experimental models of diabetes are reviewed, with a focus on the negative impact on increased neuronal apoptosis and related cellular and molecular mechanisms. Results: Of all articles that were assessed, most of the experimental studies clearly showed that diabetes causes neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus through multiple mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inhibition of caspases, disturbance in expression of apoptosis regulator genes, as well as deficits in mitochondrial function. The balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling may determine the neuronal apoptotic outcome in vitro and in vivo models of experimental diabetes. Conclusions: Dissecting out the mechanisms responsible for diabetes-related changes in the hippocampal cell apoptosis helps improve treatment of impaired cognitive and memory functions in diabetic individuals.
  2,375 498 17
Tumor cells growth and survival time with the ketogenic diet in animal models: A systematic review
Soheila Khodadadi, Nafiseh Sobhani, Somaye Mirshekar, Reza Ghiasvand, Makan Pourmasoumi, Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh
2017, 8:35 (25 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.207035  PMID:28584617
Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD) which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies. So, we conducted this systematic review to assess the effects of KD on the tumor cells growth and survival time in animal studies. All databases were searched from inception to November 2015. We systematically searched the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholars, Science Direct and Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. To assess the quality of included studies we used SYRCLE's RoB tool. 268 articles were obtained from databases by primary search. Only 13 studies were eligible according to inclusion criteria. From included studies, 9 articles indicate that KD had a beneficial effect on tumor growth and survival time. Tumor types were included pancreatic, prostate, gastric, colon, brain, neuroblastoma and lung cancers. In conclusions, although studies in this field are rare and inconsistence, recent findings have demonstrated that KD can potentially inhibit the malignant cell growth and increase the survival time. Because of differences physiology between animals and humans, future studies in cancer patients treated with a KD are needed.
  2,152 718 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
"Theory based health education: Application of health belief model for Iranian obese and overweight students about physical activity" in Urmia, Iran
Baratali Rezapour, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Hamidreza Khalkhali
2016, 7:115 (10 October 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.191879  PMID:27761217
Background: Obesity is a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physical education program (PEP) on promoting health belief model (HBM) scores, increasing physical activity (PA), and reducing obesity among Iranian high school students. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was accomplished at four high schools that were randomly divided into two groups of experiment (forty) and control (forty) male students in junior high schools in Urmia, Iran. Students in the experimental group received a PEP during 6 months. The essential parameters were used for evaluating the effects of educational program on HBM, PA, and body mass index (BMI) of students. Results: After the intervention of 3 and 6 months, the experimental group showed a significant difference on the results of HBM constructs. According to the result of repeated-measures ANOVA, there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups about the components of PA constructs. Analysis of covariance showed that although BMI reduced in 6 months after intervention, there was no significant difference in BMI. Conclusions: Results of the study revealed that implementation of PEP was effective on increasing the score of the components of HBM and PA of students.
  2,568 291 1
The effect of symbiotic supplementation on liver enzymes, c-reactive protein and ultrasound findings in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A clinical trial
Atefe Asgharian, Gholamreza Askari, Ahmad Esmailzade, Awat Feizi, Vida Mohammadi
2016, 7:59 (10 March 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.178533  PMID:27076897
Background: Regarding to the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), concentrating on various strategies to its prevention and management seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of symbiotic on C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and ultrasound findings in patients with NAFLD. Methods: Eighty NAFLD patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received symbiotic in form of a 500 mg capsule (containing seven species of probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides) or a placebo capsule daily for 8 weeks. Ultrasound grading, CRP, and liver enzymes were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: In the symbiotic group, ultrasound grade decreased significantly compared to baseline (P < 0.005) but symbiotic supplementation was not associated with changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. In the placebo group, there was no significant change in steatosis grade whereas ALT and AST levels were significantly increased (P = 0.002, P = 0.02, respectively). CRP values remained static in either group. Conclusions: Symbiotic supplementation improved steatosis in NAFLD patients and might be useful in the management of NAFLD or protective against its progression.
  2,466 328 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control
Ramezan Ali Ataee, Mohammad Hosein Ataee, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Mahmud Salesi
2017, 8:16 (10 March 2017)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.201923  PMID:28382192
The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.
  2,312 456 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of an educational program based on health belief model on preventing osteoporosis in women
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Alireza Hidarnia, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Alireza Askari
2015, 6:115 (24 November 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.170429  PMID:26730345
Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased to 0.125, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of knowledge, walking, and diet on bone mass by HBM. Hence, these models can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the osteoporosis prevention.
  2,288 354 6
Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010
Xavier Carbonell, Elena Guardiola, Héctor Fuster, Frederic Gil, Tayana Panova
2016, 7:63 (1 April 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.179511  PMID:27141282
Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Methods: Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Results: Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996-2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition could change the publication trends in the technological addiction area and underline the relevance of this upcoming disorder in dissatisfaction with life in general.
  2,181 365 4
Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India
Arun Kumar, Md. Samiur Rahman, Md. Asif Iqubal, Mohammad Ali, Pintoo Kumar Niraj, Gautam Anand, Prabhat Kumar, Abhinav , Ashok Kumar Ghosh
2016, 7:100 (9 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188085  PMID:27625765
Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.
  2,333 186 3
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Commentary on prevention a possible drug-drug interaction: Is concurrent administration of orlistat and pioglitazone increase the risk of durg-induced hepatotoxicity?
Marjan Emzhik, Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam, Soltan Ahmad Ebrahimi, Fariborz Keyhanfar, Ashraf Sadat Moazzam
2015, 6:16 (20 February 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.151825  PMID:25789148
Background: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an emerging threat to public health and are difficult to detect. To prevent DDIs and their burden, the possible DDIs should be kept in mind. We know that the obesity predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, combinational uses of antiobesity drugs and glucose-lowering drugs are very common. As the hepatotoxicity of both pioglitazone (an antidiabetic drug) and orlistat (an antiobesity drug) has been shown in some cases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of pioglitazone and orlistat in human hepatocellular cell line human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells to determine their effect on liver toxicity. Methods: Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with 25 μM Pioglitazon (Pio), 20 μM Orlistat (Orl) pioglitazone, orlistat or combination of them. The MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Results: Pioglitazone and orlistat combination caused a loss of HepG2 cell viability. While pioglitazone (25 μM) and orliatat (20 μM) alone decreased the cell viability around 91% and 85% respectively (notsignificant, P > 0.05), the combination of these two drugs reduced the amount of viable cells to 55% which was significant when compared with each drug alone (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Revealing the significant loss of viability of HepG2 cells in the combination use of pioglitazone and orlistat indicates these two drugs should not be administered at the same time to prevent their hepatotoxic effects especially in patients with liver dysfunction.
  1,885 620 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Intake of nutrients, fiber, and sugar in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in comparison to healthy individuals
Hamid Zolfaghari, Gholamreza Askari, Fereydoun Siassi, Awat Feizi, Gity Sotoudeh
2016, 7:98 (9 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188083  PMID:27625763
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Although some studies have been conducted about dietary intakes of these patients, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to survey all macronutrients and micronutrients included in dietary intake of these patients for better understanding the factors influencing this disease. Methods: The present study is a case-control conducted in Isfahan city, Iran. The cases were recently diagnosed patients with NAFLD who identified by ultrasonography. The case (159) and control (158) individuals were matched in age and gender. Data of general characteristics and physical activity of individuals were collected through questionnaire. Dietary intake was also collected using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. Results: Waistline and body mass index for the case group were more than the control group (P < 0.05). Physical activity level in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and sugar in patients with NAFLD was more than healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Intake of total dietary fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease.
  2,203 295 7
Administration of lactobacillus casei and bifidobacterium bifidum ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats
Poonam Sharma, Priyanka Bhardwaj, Rambir Singh
2016, 7:102 (22 August 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.188870  PMID:27625767
Background: The present work was planned to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Single daily dose of 1 × 10 7 cfu/ml of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both was given to Wistar rats orally by gavaging for 28 days. Glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured from blood. Glycogen from thigh muscles and liver and oxidative stress parameters from pancreas were analyzed. Results: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both to diabetic rats decreased serum FBG (60.47%, 55.89%, and 56.49%, respectively), HbA1c (28.11%, 28.61%, and 28.28%), total cholesterol (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%), triglycerides (9.935%, 8.58%, and 7.91%), low-density lipoproteins (53.27%, 53.35%, and 52.91%) and very low-density lipoproteins (10%, 8.58%, and 11.15%, respectively) and increased high-density lipoproteins (13.73%, 15.47%, and 15.47%), and insulin (19.50%, 25.80%, and 29.47%, respectively). The treatment also resulted in increase in muscle (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%) and liver (25.82%, 6.63%, and 4.02%) glycogen level. The antioxidant indexes in pancreas of diabetic rats returned to normal level with reduction in lipid peroxidation (30.89%, 46.46%, and 65.36%) and elevation in reduced glutathione (104.5%, 161.34%, and 179.04%), superoxide dismutase (38.65%, 44.32%, and 53.35%), catalase (13.08%, 27%, and 31.52%), glutathione peroxidase (55.56%, 72.23%, and 97.23%), glutathione reductase (49.27%, 88.40%, and 110.86%), and glutathione-S-transferase (140%, 220%, and 246.6%, respectively) on treatment with L. casei, B. bifidum, and combination treatment. Conclusions: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
  2,236 250 5
High flow nasal cannula as a method for rapid weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure
Zohreh Badiee, Alireza Eshghi, Majid Mohammadizadeh
2015, 6:33 (10 April 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.154922  PMID:25949783
Background: To compare two methods of weaning premature infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Methods: Between March and November 2012, 88 preterm infants who were stable on NCPAP of 5 cmH 2 O with FIO 2 <30% for a minimum of 6 h were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) group received HFNC with flow of 2 L/min and FIO 2 = 0.3 and then stepwise reduction of FIO 2 and then flow. The non-HFNC group was maintained on NCPAP of 5 cmH 2 O and gradual reduction of oxygen until they were on FIO 2 = 0.21 for 6 h, and we had weaned them directly from NCPAP (with pressure of 5 cmH 2 O) to room air. Results: No significant differences were found between 2 study groups with regards to gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min after birth, patent ductus arteriosus and use of xanthines. The mean duration of oxygen therapy after randomization was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (20.6 ± 16.8 h vs. 49.6 ± 25.3 h, P < 0.001). Also, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (11.3 ± 7.8 days vs. 14.8 ± 8.6 days, P = 0.04). The rate of successful weaning was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusions: Weaning from NCPAP to HFNC could decrease the duration of oxygen therapy and length of hospitalization in preterm infants.
  1,973 507 9
Effects of probiotic supplementation on pancreatic β-cell function and c-reactive protein in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial
Tanaz Shoaei, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani, Awat feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Gholamreza Askari
2015, 6:27 (24 March 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.153866  PMID:25949777
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a polygenic endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age that lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic on pancreatic b-cell function and C-reactive protein (CRP) in PCOS patients. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 72 women aged 15-40 years old diagnosed with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups receiving: (1) Probiotic supplements (n = 36), (2) placebo (n = 36) for 8-week. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8-week of intervention. Results: Probiotic supplementation, compare with placebo, reduced fasting blood sugar (−4.15 ± 2.87 vs. 2.57 ± 5.66 mg/dL, respectively P = 0.7), serum insulin levels in crude model (−0.49 ± 0.67 vs. 0.34 ± 0.82 mIU/mL, respectively, P = 0.09), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance score (−0.25 ± 0.18 vs. −0.05 ± 0.18, respectively, P = 0.14) nonsignificantly. Serum insulin levels after adjustment with covariates reduced significantly in probiotic group (P = 0.02). We did not found any significant differences in mean changes of CRP between groups (−0.25 ± 0.18 vs. −0.05 ± 0.18, respectively, P = 0.14). Conclusions: A 8-week multispecies probiotics supplementation had nonsignificantly beneficial effect on pancreatic b-cell function and CRP in PCOS patients. After adjustment for some covariates, serum insulin changes were significantly different between groups.
  2,013 409 14
REVIEW ARTICLES
Magnesium, iron, and zinc supplementation for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review on the recent literature
Mitra Hariri, Leila Azadbakht
2015, 6:83 (2 September 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.164313  PMID:26445630
Background: The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not exactly known and its etiology is multifactorial. The usual treatment for these children is based on pharmacotherapy treatment, although the pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, it often causes different side effects. Existing evidence suggests that children who receive mineral supplement without considering their age and supplement formula may perform better on different behavioral tests compared with those receiving placebo. Methods: In this study, we tried to review the previous evidence regarding the effects of minerals in prevention and management of ADHD. We searched PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Ovid, Scopus, and ISI web of science up to June 2013. "iron," "iron supplementation," "magnesium," "magnesium supplementation," "zinc," "zinc supplementation," "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" were used as the keywords. Totally 11 randomized controlled trials were eligible to be included in the systematic review. Results: Our review showed that we don't have any predominant evidence about using mineral supplementation on children with ADHD. Conclusions: We need more evidence for indicating the effect of zinc, magnesium, and iron supplementation in the treatment of ADHD among children.
  1,892 504 11
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of thymoquinone on P53 gene expression and consequence apoptosis in breast cancer cell line
Mehdi Nikbakht Dastjerdi, Ebrahim Momeni Mehdiabady, Farhad Golshan Iranpour, Hamid Bahramian
2016, 7:66 (14 April 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.180412  PMID:27141285
Background: Nigella sativa has been a nutritional flavoring factor and natural treatment for many ailments for so many years in medical science. Earlier studies have been reported that thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound of its seed, contains anticancer properties. Previous studies have shown that TQ induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells but it is unclear the role of P53 in the apoptotic pathway. Hereby, this study reports the potency of TQ on expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). Methods: MCF-7 cell line was cultured and treated with TQ, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out for evaluating the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values after 24 h of treatment. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to estimate the messenger RNA expression of P53 in MCF-7 cell line at different times. Results: The IC50 value for the TQ in MCF-7 cells was 25 mM that determined using MTT assay. The flow cytometry and real-time PCR results showed that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, and the P53 gene expression was dramatically up-regulated by ascending time, respectively. Hence, there was significant difference in 48 and 72 h. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through up-regulation of P53 expression in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by time-dependent manner.
  2,024 371 8