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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: (a) Effect of total extract, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions of A. calamus on the percentage of time spent in the open arms in EPM tests. Tukey's test revealed that there are significant differences among LPS-control group and groups of aqueous fractions at 200 and 600 mg/kg doses (P= 0.002). (b) Effect of total extract, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions of A. calamus on the numbers of open arm entries in EPM during 5 min. By applying Tukey's test, significant differences were seen between the following groups (P < 0.05): (1) Δ indicating the LPS-control group with all groups except the group of total extract at 600 mg/kg dose, (2) ε indicating the Sham-control group with groups of ethyl acetate at 600 mg/kg dose and total extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg, (3) θ indicating the group of aqueous at 200 mg/kg dose with groups of total extract at 600 mg/kg dose and ethyl acetate at 600 mg/kg dose, (4) λ indicating the group of aqueous at 600 mg/kg dose with groups of total extract at 400 and 600 mg/kg doses and the groups of ethyl acetate at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg doses, and (5) ϕ indicating the group of aqueous at a dose of 400 mg/kg with the group of ethyl acetate at 200 mg/kg dose

Figure 3: (a) Effect of total extract, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions of <i>A. calamus</i> on the percentage of time spent in the open arms in EPM tests. Tukey's test revealed that there are significant differences among LPS-control group and groups of aqueous fractions at 200 and 600 mg/kg doses (<i>P</i>= 0.002). (b) Effect of total extract, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions of <i>A. calamus</i> on the numbers of open arm entries in EPM during 5 min. By applying Tukey's test, significant differences were seen between the following groups (<i>P</i> < 0.05): (1) Δ indicating the LPS-control group with all groups except the group of total extract at 600 mg/kg dose, (2) ε indicating the Sham-control group with groups of ethyl acetate at 600 mg/kg dose and total extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg, (3) θ indicating the group of aqueous at 200 mg/kg dose with groups of total extract at 600 mg/kg dose and ethyl acetate at 600 mg/kg dose, (4) λ indicating the group of aqueous at 600 mg/kg dose with groups of total extract at 400 and 600 mg/kg doses and the groups of ethyl acetate at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg doses, and (5) ϕ indicating the group of aqueous at a dose of 400 mg/kg with the group of ethyl acetate at 200 mg/kg dose