• Users Online: 343
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 108

On the occasion of world cancer day 2015; the possibility of cancer prevention or treatment with antioxidants: The ongoing cancer prevention researches


1 Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Nephrology, Division of Nephropathology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission01-Jun-2014
Date of Acceptance30-Apr-2015
Date of Web Publication04-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaie
Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.169077

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

On February, 2014 World Cancer Day (WCD) was established to raise alertness of cancer and to encourage its prevention, detection, and treatment. In fact, WCD is celebrated every year on the 4 th of February all over the world to commemorate all the accomplishments of the WHO. In this paper, we aimed to present the scientific evidence for the role of antioxidants in cancer. Damage to cells by reactive oxygen species, especially the damage to DNA, has been found to play a crucial role in the development of cancer. Exogenous antioxidants can prevent free radical damage associated with cancer development. However, whether or not taking dietary antioxidants can prevent or reduce the risk of developing cancer in humans is not clear. Some researchers have suggested that antioxidants counteract with drugs or toxins, which induce oxidative stress and hence prevent damage to cells or body organs.

Keywords: Antioxidant, cancer, herbs


How to cite this article:
Rafieian-Kopaie M, Nasri H. On the occasion of world cancer day 2015; the possibility of cancer prevention or treatment with antioxidants: The ongoing cancer prevention researches. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:108

How to cite this URL:
Rafieian-Kopaie M, Nasri H. On the occasion of world cancer day 2015; the possibility of cancer prevention or treatment with antioxidants: The ongoing cancer prevention researches. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 May 15];6:108. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2015/6/1/108/169077


  Introduction Top


On February, 2014 World Cancer Day (WCD) was founded to raise alertness of cancer and to encourage its prevention, detection, and treatment. [1],[2] In fact, WCD is celebrated worldwide every year on the 4 th of February to commemorate the cancer-related accomplishments of the WHO. [3],[4],[5] The first WCD celebration was planned in Geneva, Switzerland in 1933 under the direction of Union for International Cancer Control with the support of various other well-known cancer societies, treatment centers, research institutes, and patient groups. [3],[4] The WCD event was founded to help find the resources needed to fight and control this deadly disease. [4],[5],[6] Moreover, the WCD is celebrated to help inform the public about cancer risk factors preventive measures, the benefits of early detection. In this review, we present the scientific evidence for the preventive role of antioxidants on cancer. [7],[8]

Free radicals and in particular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed naturally in the body when an atom or a molecule either loses or gains an electron. Free radicals play an important role in many normal cellular processes. [9],[10] However, at high concentrations, they can damage all major components of cells including proteins, DNA, and cell membranes. These damages to cells, especially the damage to DNA, can play a crucial role in the development of cancer. [11] Moreover, some environmental toxins like cigarette smoke, may contain large amounts of free radicals or stimulate the body's cells to produce more free radicals. [11]

The body makes some antioxidants, which are called endogenous antioxidants. However, the body also relies on exogenous sources of antioxidants for the rest of its protection against ROS and free radicals. [12],[13],[14] If free radicals and ROS can cause cancer, antioxidants, therefore, should be able to prevent or inhibit this process. [14],[15]

Exogenous antioxidants can prevent free radical induced damage associated with cancer development. [16],[17],[18],[19] However, whether or not taking dietary antioxidants can prevent or reduce the risk of developing cancer in humans is not clear. [20],[21] It has been suggested that antioxidants counteract with drugs [22],[23] or toxins, [20],[21],[22],[23] which induce oxidative stress and hence prevent damage to cells or body organs. [22],[23],[24],[25]

In laboratory and preclinical studies in cancer prevention [26],[27] or immune system stimulation [28] through medicinal plants with antioxidant activity, promising results have been achieved. However, the cohort and case-control studies, which have investigated the use of dietary antioxidants in the risk of cancer in humans have achieved mixed results.

Due to inadequate control for biases, which might influence the results, observational studies must be viewed with much caution. Randomized controlled clinical trials are considered to provide more reliable evidence of the harm or benefit of a health-related intervention. The results of the most important trials are summarized below.


  The linxian general population nutrition intervention trials Top


Effect of synthetic alpha-tocopherol

The first trial was a large-scale randomized trial investigating the effect of synthetic alpha-tocopherol on cancer risk in healthy Chinese people at increased risk of developing gastric and esophageal cancers. [29] The subjects were randomly assigned to take a combination of 50 μg selenium, 15 mg beta-carotene, and 30 mg synthetic alpha-tocopherol, per day for 5 years or no supplement. The results of the study demonstrated that the risk of developing gastric cancer and/or esophageal cancer was not affected by antioxidant supplementation. However, people who took antioxidants had lower death due to gastric cancer but not for to esophageal cancer. [29] In this study, 10 years after antioxidants supplementation ended, the reduced risk of gastric cancer death was no longer found for those who took antioxidants, in comparison to those who did not. [30]

Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene

In the second trial, which was conducted in Finland, 5-8 years consumption of synthetic alpha-tocopherol and/or beta-carotene could reduce the incidence of different cancers in some middle-aged male smokers. The initial results of the study showed an increase in the incidence of lung cancer in the subjects who took 20 mg per day beta-carotene supplementation. [31] There were no effects of alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of renal pelvis, bladder, ureter, pancreas, colorectal, kidney, pharyngeal, laryngeal or esophageal cancers. [32]

Effects of beta-carotene and Vitamin A on lung cancer

In a trial in the United States, daily supplementation with beta-carotene and Vitamin A on people who were at high risk of lung cancer due to having a history of smoking or exposure to asbestos showed that daily supplementation with both 25,000 IU retinol and 15 mg beta-carotene was associated with increased lung cancer and increased death from all-cause mortality. [33] A later report in 2004 showed that the adverse effects persisted up to 6 years after the consumption of these supplements ended. However, the enhanced risks of all-cause mortality and lung cancer were no longer statistically significant. [34]

In another study in 1996, 50 mg beta-carotene administration every other day for 12 years had no effect on cancer mortality, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality among US male subjects. [35]

Every other day administration of 50 mg beta-carotene, 600 IU Vitamin E, and 100 mg aspirin has also had no benefit or the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases in US women of over 45 years. [36] In 2005, similar results were published for Vitamin E consumption. [37]

Effects of selenium and alpha-tocopherol on cancer in a trial published in 2004, daily supplementation with 100 μg selenium, 20 mg zinc, 6 mg beta-carotene, 30 mg synthetic Vitamin E, and 120 mg Vitamin C for a median of 7.5 years had no effect on the incidence of cardiovascular or cancer diseases or all-cause mortality, too. [38]

In an international trial reported in 2005, no effect of daily supplementation with 400 IU synthetic alpha-tocopherol which was administered for 7 years was seen in the incidence of major cardiovascular events such as stroke, heart attack or death from heart disease, cancer incidence or death from cancer in people diagnosed with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. [39]

The next trial was conducted in US, began in 2001 and was stopped in 2008. The trial investigated whether daily supplementation with 200 μg selenium, 400 IU synthetic Vitamin E or both would reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in men over 50 years. The results showed that the use of these supplements for a period of about 5.5 years did not affect the incidence of prostate or other cancers. [39],[40] Updated findings, reported in 2011, demonstrated that, following 1.5 years off supplements, the cases of prostate cancer among men taking Vitamin E alone were 17% more compared to placebo group. [41] No increase in prostate risk was observed for men assigned to take Vitamin E plus selenium or selenium alone compared with men assigned to take a placebo. [39]

In a trial which was conducted in 2009 the use of 500 mg Vitamin C, 400 IU Vitamin E or combination of the two, every other day for a median of 7.6 years did not reduce the incidence of prostate cancer or other cancers including leukemia, melanoma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, pancreas, lung, colon, and rectum. [42]

The above-randomized controlled clinical trials did not show that dietary antioxidant supplements are always beneficial in primary cancer prevention. However, it is possible that the lack of benefit in most of the clinical studies can be related to the effects of the tested antioxidants on cancer. They all were consumed as purified chemicals and their effects might be different when they are consumed as natural foods, which contain complex mixtures of minerals, vitamins, and various antioxidants. This acquires a more complete understanding of the antioxidant content of individual foods, how the various antioxidants interact with each other, and the factors that influence the uptake and distribution of food-derived antioxidants in the body. These are all active areas of ongoing cancer prevention research. [42],[43],[44],[45]

Another question, which might be raised is that whether or not people already diagnosed with cancer should take antioxidant supplements? Recent studies reported that antioxidant supplements during cancer treatment might alter the effectiveness or reduce the toxicity of specific therapies. [46],[47],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52],[53] Other trials have reported mixed results; some of them found that people who took antioxidants during cancer therapy had worse outcomes, especially if they were smokers. [54],[55],[56],[57],[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67],[68],[69],[70],[71],[72],[73],[74]

Additional large randomized controlled studies are necessary to provide clear evidence about the benefits or harms of taking antioxidant supplements during cancer treatment.


  Conclusions Top


In sum, a lot of in vitro studies have shown that exogenous antioxidants are able to help prevent the free radical damage associated with the development of cancer. However, researches in humans have not demonstrated convincingly that taking antioxidant can reduce the risk of developing cancer, and some studies have even shown an increased risk for some cancers, particularly, in smokers.

 
  References Top

1.
Toh HC. World Cancer Day 2011: A world without cancer one day? Ann Acad Med Singapore 2011;40:65-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Rafieian-Kopaei M, Nasri H. The ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale in diabetic nephropathy. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014;16:e11324.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
McAvoy B. Optimising cancer care in Australia. Aust Fam Physician 2003;32:369-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mortazavi M, Nasri H. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) presenting as the right ventricular masses: A case report and review of the literature. J Nephropathol 2012;1:49-56.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nasri H. Atypical presentations of the sarcoidosis with kidney involvement. J Renal Inj Prev 2012;1:51-2.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hajivandi A, Amiri M. World Kidney Day 2014: Kidney disease and elderly. J Parathyr Dis 2014;2:3-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nasri H, Baradaran A. The influence of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels on Helicobacter pylori Infections in patients with end-stage renal failure on regular hemodialysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2007;18:215-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
8.
Nasri H. Cisplatin and renal injury; current concepts. J Renal Inj Prev 2013;2:89-90.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Setorki M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Merikhi A, Heidarian E, Shahinfard N, Ansari R, et al. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:889-95.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
10.
Nasri H. Reply: Oxytocin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Ann Saudi Med 2013;33:510-1.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ardalan MR, Sanadgol H, Nasri H, Baradaran A, Tamadon MR, Rafieian-Kopaei R. Vitamin D therapy in diabetic kidney disease; current knowledge on a public health problem. J Parathyr Dis 2014;2:15-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44-84.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Nasri H. Comment on: A model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by kidney weight in experimental rats. J Res Med Sci 2013;18:1119-20.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
14.
Nasri H, Nematbakhsh M, Ghobadi S, Ansari R, Shahinfard N, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Preventive and curative effects of ginger extract against histopathologic changes of gentamicin-induced tubular toxicity in rats. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:316-21.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
15.
Bouayed J, Bohn T. Exogenous antioxidants - Double-edged swords in cellular redox state: Health beneficial effects at physiologic doses versus deleterious effects at high doses: Oxid Med Cell Longev 2010;3:228-237.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Nasri H, Ardalan MR, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Comment on: Prevention of renal damage by treating hyperuricemia. Int J Prev Med 2015;6:10.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
17.
Rafieian-Kopaei M, Baradaran A, Rafieian M. Plants antioxidants: From laboratory to clinic. J Nephropathol 2013;2:152-3.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ardalan MR, Sanadgol H, Nasri H, Baradaran A, Tamadon MR, Rafieian-Kopaei R. Impact of vitamin D on the immune system in kidney disease. J Parathyr Dis 2013;1:17-20.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Baradaran A, Nasri H, Nematbakhsh M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Antioxidant activity and preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aloe Vera on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Clin Ter 2014;165:7-11.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Herbal medicine and diabetic kidney disease. J Nephropharmacol 2013;2:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Shirzad M, Kordyazdi R, Shahinfard N, Nikokar M. Does Royal jelly affect tumor cells? J HerbMed Pharmacol 2013;2:45-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Protective effects of herbal antioxidants on diabetic kidney disease. J Res Med Sci 2014;19:82-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
23.
Nasri H. Comment on: A model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by kidney weight in experimental rats. J Res Med Sci 2013;18:1119-20.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
24.
Tagne RS, Telefo BP, Nyemb JN, Yemele DM, Njina SN, Goka SM, et al. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and fractions of some Cameroonian medicinal plants. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7S1:S442-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Nasri H, Baradaran A, Shirzad H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. New concepts in nutraceuticals as alternative for pharmaceuticals. Int J Prev Med 2014;5:1487-99.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
26.
Mosavel M, Simon C, Oakar C, Meyer S. Cervical cancer attitudes and beliefs - A Cape Town community responds on World Cancer Day. J Cancer Educ 2009;24:114-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Ardalan MR, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Is the safety of herbal medicines for kidneys under question? J Nephropharmacol 2013;2:11-2.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Ardalan MR, Khodaie L, Nasri H, Jouyban A. Herbs and hazards: Risk of aristolochic acid nephropathy in Iran. Iran J Kidney Dis 2015;9:14-7.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Cannon G, Gupta P, Gomes F, Kerner J, Parra W, Weiderpass E, et al. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012;13:3-11.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Rafieian-Kopaei M, Nasri H, Baradaran A. Teucrium polium: Liver and kidney effects. J Res Med Sci 2014;19:478-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
31.
Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. World cancer day 2014: "Increasing the awareness". Cell J 2014;16:383-4.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Nematbakhsh M, Nasri H. The effects of vitamin E and selenium on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Res Med Sci 2013;18:626-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
33.
Nasri H. Cisplatin therapy and the problem of gender-related nephrotoxicity. J Nephro pharmacol 2013;2:13-4.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Baradaran A, Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Oxidative stress and hypertension: Possibility of hypertension therapy with antioxidants. J Res Med Sci 2014;19:358-67.  Back to cited text no. 34
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
35.
Shirzad H, Taji F, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Correlation between antioxidant activity of garlic extracts and WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice. J Med Food 2011;14:969-74.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Shirzad H, Kiani M, Shirzad M. Impacts of tomato extract on the mice fibrosarcoma cells. J HerbMed Pharmacol 2013;2:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Shirzad H, Shahrani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Comparison of morphine and tramadol effects on phagocytic activity of mice peritoneal phagocytes in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol 2009;9:968-70.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Guo W, Dawsey S, Wang GQ, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483-92.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Nasri H. C-Phycocyanin attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Ren Fail 2013;35:1054-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Nematbakhsh M, Nasri H. Re: Effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat. Iran J Kidney Dis 2013;7:165-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Nasri H. Protective effects of subchronic caffeine administration on cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity in male mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2013;51:406.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Kamangar F, Fan JH, Abnet CC, Sun XD, et al. Total and cancer mortality after supplementation with vitamins and minerals: Follow-up of the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101:507-18.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Setorki M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Merikhi A, Heidarian E, Shahinfard N, Ansari R, et al. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:889-95.  Back to cited text no. 43
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
44.
Baradaran A, Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Oxidative stress and hypertension: Possibility of hypertension therapy with antioxidants. J Res Med Sci 2014;19:358-67.  Back to cited text no. 44
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
45.
Nematbakhsh M, Nasri H. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity may be sex related. Kidney Int 2013;83:1201.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Baradaran A, Behradmanesh S, Nasri H. Association of body mass index and serum vitamin D level in healthy Iranian adolescents. Endokrynol Pol 2012;63:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Nasri H. Hypertension and renal failure with right arm pulse weakness in a 65 years old man. J Nephropathol 2012;1:130-3.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029-35.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Wright ME, Virtamo J, Hartman AM, Pietinen P, Edwards BK, Taylor PR, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a large, randomized controlled trial. Cancer 2007;109:891-8.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Glass A, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1150-5.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Meyskens FL Jr, Omenn GS, et al. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: Incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:1743-50.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, Stampfer M, Rosner B, Cook NR, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1145-9.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Lee IM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, Hennekens CH. Beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease: The Women's Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:2102-6.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Gordon D, Ridker PM, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: The Women's Health Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294:56-65.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, Bertrais S, Mennen L, Malvy D, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39-51.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Nasri H. Re: Effect of silymarin on streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic nephropathy in rats. Iran J Kidney Dis 2013;7:414-5.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Klein EA, Thompson IM Jr, Tangen CM, Crowley JJ, Lucia MS, Goodman PJ, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2011;306:1549-56.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG, Kurth T, Belanger C, MacFadyen J, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: The Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301:52-62.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Ghafari M, Taheri Z, Hajivandi A, Amiri M. Parathyroid carcinoma; facts and views. J Parathyr Dis 2015;3:37-40.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Nasri H. Sudden onset of renal failure requiring dialysis associated with large B-cell lymphoma of colon. J Nephropathol 2012;1:202-6.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Maghsoudi AR, Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi M, Ghaed-Amini F, Nasri H, Dehghani Mobarakeh M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Renal failure and submental lymphadenopathy in a 68 years old woman. J Nephropathol 2012;1:198-201.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Nasri H, Tavakoli M, Ahmadi A, Baradaran A, Nematbakhsh M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Ameliorative effect of melatonin against contrast media induced renal tubular cell injury. Pak J Med Sci 2014;30:261-5.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Baradaran A, Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Comment on: Anti-oxidative stress activity of Stachys lavandulifolia aqueous extract in humans. Cell J 2013;15:272-3.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Nasri H, Madihi Y, Marikhi A. Commentary on: Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:618-9.  Back to cited text no. 65
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
66.
Nasri H. Effect of garlic extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Adv Clin Exp Med 2013;22:449-50.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Wiseman M. The second World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research expert report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Proc Nutr Soc 2008;67:253-6.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Ardalan MR. Parathyroid carcinoma in hemodialysis patients; it should not be diagnosed as a thyroid nodule. J Parathyr Dis 2013;1:25-6.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Ardalan MR, Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Comment on: Protective role of recombinant human erythropoietin in kidney and lung injury following renal bilateral ischemia-reperfusion in Rat Model. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:1226-7.  Back to cited text no. 69
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
70.
Nasri H. Antioxidants for prevention of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Iran J Kidney Dis 2014;8:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Oxidative stress and aging prevention. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:1101-2.  Back to cited text no. 71
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
72.
Nasri H, Madihi Y, Marikhi A. Commentary on: Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:618-9.  Back to cited text no. 72
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
73.
Nasri H, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Protective effects of herbal antioxidants on diabetic kidney disease. J Res Med Sci 2014;19:82-3.  Back to cited text no. 73
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
74.
Nasri H, Nematbakhsh M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Ethanolic extract of garlic for attenuation of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Iran J Kidney Dis 2013;7:376-82.  Back to cited text no. 74
    



This article has been cited by
1 In vitro cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory cytokinine activity study of three isolated novel compounds of Prismatomeris glabra
KhaledA A Alkadi,Kamran Ashraf,Aishah Adam,SyedAdnan Ali Shah,Muhammad Taha,MizatonHazizul Hasan,Cinimathew John,RazaliMohamed Salleh,Wasim Ahmad
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences. 2021; 13(1): 116
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Curcumin-Polyallyhydrocarbon Nanocapsules Potently Suppress 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice by Inhibiting Wnt/ß-Catenin Pathway
Alaa Al Moubarak,Manal El Joumaa,Layal Slika,Digambara Patra,Jamilah Borjac
BioNanoScience. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Anti-bacterial and skin-cancer activity of AuNP, rGO and AuNP-rGO composite using Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.F.) T. Anderson
Santhiya Sasidharan,Lalitha Pottail
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2020; : 101596
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative study of four different extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus, Gynura procumbens and Ficus deltoidea
Kamran Ashraf,Hasseri Halim,Siong Meng Lim,Kalavathy Ramasamy,Sadia Sultan
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Alterations of Methionine Metabolism as Potential Targets for the Prevention and Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Moreno Pascale,Moreno Peitta,Moreno Simile,Moreno Feo
Medicina. 2019; 55(6): 296
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Recent Advances in Metabolites from Medicinal Plants in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Manzoor A. Mir,Syed S. Hamdani,Bashir A. Sheikh,Umar Mehraj
Current Immunology Reviews. 2019; 15(2): 185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin induces substantial epigenetic changes in cultured cardiomyocytes
Alina Hanf,Matthias Oelze,Adrian Manea,Huige Li,Thomas Münzel,Andreas Daiber
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2019; : 108834
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Physalis alkekengi hydroalcoholic extract enhances the apoptosis in mouse model of breast cancer cells
Arsalan Esmailpoor,Aabdolmajid Ghasemian,Ehsan Dehnavi,Hamed Peidayesh,Maryam Teimouri
Gene Reports. 2019; 15: 100366
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2: Review Study
Wesam Kooti,Karo Servatyari,Masoud Behzadifar,Majid Asadi-Samani,Fatemeh Sadeghi,Bijan Nouri,Hadi Zare Marzouni
Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2017; 22(4): 982
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Harmful effects behind the daily supplementation of a fixed vegetarian blend in the rat model
Barbara Bonamassa,Donatella Canistro,Andrea Sapone,Fabio Vivarelli,Andrea Vornoli,Vincenzo Longo,Moreno Paolini
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2016; 97: 367
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Cross Talk of Proteostasis and Mitostasis in Cellular Homeodynamics, Ageing, and Disease
Sentiljana Gumeni,Ioannis P. Trougakos
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Reactive oxygen radicals – the therapeutic effectiveness of antioxidants
Marta Skiba,Agnieszka Pedrycz,Beata Cichacz
Polish Hyperbaric Research. 2016; 54(1): 41
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease
Sarah Kreuz,Wolfgang Fischle
Epigenomics. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
The linxian gene...
Conclusions
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2869    
    Printed18    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded216    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 13    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]