Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years
Hamid Najafipour1, Mohammad Masoomi2, Armita Shahesmaeili3, Ali Akbar Haghdoost4, Mahdi Afshari5, Hamid Reza Nasri2, Masoomeh Kahnooji2, Sadra Samadi6, Ali Mirzazadeh7
1 Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3 Regional knowledge Hub, and WHO collaborating centre for HIV surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4 Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Health School, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
5 Department of Community Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
6 General Physician, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
7 Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Afzalipour Medical Faculty, Shafa Hospital, Shafa Street, Kerman
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors.
Methods: We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant.
Results: Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P < 0.01). Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile.
Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.