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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43

Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection prevention following occupational exposure among staff at a regional referral hospital in Western Kenya

1 Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
2 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya

Correspondence Address:
Barbara Kabai Burmen
Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_217_16

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Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) aides in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital. Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January 2011 and December 2012. Proportions were used to summarize number of participants receiving the recommended services, Kaplan–Meier curves were used to describe time to ART initiation, and Chi-square statistics was used to describe the association between participant characteristics and PEP completion rates. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of documented hospital staff (n = 52) were health workers (63%) and students (27%) and had high HIV risk exposures (97%). All had timely PEP initiation with 50% completing PEP. Completion rates did not vary by gender (P = 0.78), exposure type (P = 1.0), or department of exposure (P = 0.75). Retesting for HIV and negativity rates at months 1.5, 3, and 6 were 96%, 25%, and 17% and 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. At the time of exposure, 17% (9) of staff were HBV vaccinated and HBV status of sources was unknown; no intervention was provided for HBV prevention. Conclusions: Low rates of completion and follow-up negate intended benefits of PEP. Efforts should be directed to enforce universal precaution practices and completion of PEP. Low rates of HBV testing and vaccination illustrate the need for support for the implementation of HBV prevention guidelines.

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