• Users Online: 7904
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 134

Depression literacy in urban and suburban residents of Tehran, the Capital of Iran; Recognition, help seeking and stigmatizing attitude and the predicting factors

Community Based Participatory Research Center, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission08-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance22-Apr-2019
Date of Web Publication12-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Azadeh Sayarifard
No. 12, Nosrat Street, 16th Azar Street, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_166_18

Rights and Permissions

Background: Recognizing the mental health literacy condition among the people is an important step towards promotion of mental health of a society. This study has been conducted to evaluate the depression literacy among Tehran city and its suburban residents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 18- to 68-year-old residents in Tehran city and suburb in 2017. Sampling in Tehran city was conducted using Random Digit Dialing (RDD) and 1340 people were recruited. In suburb Shamsabad and Salehabad from south of Tehran were considered as clusters and data gathering conducted by face to face interview. Depression literacy was assessed by a structured questionnaire. After introducing a vignette with a psychiatric disorder, participants were questioned in the domains of recognition of the disorder, intention to seek help and attitudes toward social stigma. Results: Correct recognition was 52.2% and 30% and intention to seek help was 54% and 33.3% in Tehran city and suburb, respectively. Female gender (P < 0.001), age increasing (P = 0.002) and higher education (P < 0.001) significantly scaled up the chance of correct recognition of depression, when female gender (P = 0.001), increasing age (P < 0.001), and being married (P = 0.01) could significantly improve the probability of seeking help. Results also showed that being married (P = 0.005) and higher education (P < 0.001) predicted lower stigma. Conclusions: Overall depression literacy in Tehran city and suburb was low, so intervention among target population in order to increase the depression literacy seems to be necessary.

Keywords: Depression, health literacy, help-seeking, recognition, social stigma

How to cite this article:
Ghadirian L, Sayarifard A. Depression literacy in urban and suburban residents of Tehran, the Capital of Iran; Recognition, help seeking and stigmatizing attitude and the predicting factors. Int J Prev Med 2019;10:134

How to cite this URL:
Ghadirian L, Sayarifard A. Depression literacy in urban and suburban residents of Tehran, the Capital of Iran; Recognition, help seeking and stigmatizing attitude and the predicting factors. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Sep 28];10:134. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2019/10/1/134/264166

  Introduction Top

Mental health is one of the main criteria for evaluating a community health which has a significant role in its promotion. The burden of mental, neurological, and substance abuse (MNS) disorders, during 1990 until 2010 has increased by 41%, so it accounts for one in every 10 lost years of health globally now.[1]

Depressive disorders are the single greatest factor to non-fatal health loss globally [7.5% of all Years Lost due to Disability (YLD)]. Disability rate induced by these disorders varies between WHO Regions, for Eastern Mediterranean Region, it accounts for 685 YLD per 100 000 population (6.9% of all YLD) in 2017.[2]

Also, several studies have conducted to estimate depression prevalence among Iranian people which show it as 11.3% in Tehran only.[3]

The definition of mental health literacy is “Knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention”.[4] So mental health literacy of people shows their knowledge of psychiatric disorders and understanding about the need to refer a patient to a specialist to receive the necessary treatment. Accordingly, an important step towards promotion of mental health of a society is to recognize the mental health literacy condition among the people and, if necessary, concentrate on its improvement.[5]

Results emerged from studies in various countries reveal that people's mental health literacy is inadequate in all or some areas [6],[7],[8],[9] that are similar to the only conducted study in Iran on students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This study shows that only 35.6% of students are able to recognize depression correctly.[10]

Considering this issue that no study has been made to evaluate the mental health literacy among people of Tehran city, the capital of Iran, until now, this study has been conducted to evaluate the mental health literacy among Tehran and its suburban residents. It could be used as a base for next programs in order to promoting the community mental health literacy if necessary.

  Methods Top

This is a cross-sectional study of 18- to 68-year-old residents of Tehran city and suburb in 2017.

Sample size was estimated about 1400 based on our previous study.[10]

From 1400, 1340 samples were recruited from Tehran city when 60 was estimated for suburb considering 316868 residents based on 2014 national census.

Sampling in Tehran city

Because of a number of reasons including lack of time, tendency to fill out questionnaire or face to face interview have declined in contrary with telephone interview. So, in this study sampling in Tehran city was conducted using Random Digit Dialing (RDD).

The number of telephone calls which should be done to complete intended number of questionnaires was estimated by below equition:

Working Phone Rate (WPR): the percentage of contacted phone numbers from random number list that were related to families (residential homes).

Population Incidence (PI): the percentage of phone numbers related to families (residential homes) that were eligible for doing interview (having the intended sample).

Contact/Cooperation Rate (CR): the percentage of contacted phone numbers which were without response, response by answering machine, busy line (for all after three times repeated dialing on different days and times) in addition to cases in which rejected interview immediately.

To estimate these three in Tehran, 100 random phone calls were made as a pilot study and findings were as follow:

WPR = 0.04

PI = 0.75

CR = 0.43

Hence, the number of needed calls was about 170,000.

Considering the importance of observing the correct principles of random sampling to avoid bias, 170,000 eight-digit numbers were selected using Excel software among the range of Tehran phone numbers.

Because of difference between populations of 22 districts in Tehran, for each district the number of samples was calculated based on the proportion of each district population on overall population of Tehran. Then random digits were chosen within the desired district codes.

Various techniques were used to decrease the non-response rate, include multiple call attempts (in different days and times) and leaving messages on answering machines for reducing non-response bias.[11]

Sampling in suburban area

Suburban residents are the people who live in a big city economic coverage area but do not get involved in its socio-economic system and are not accepted as a legitimate citizen.

Suburban residents are mostly rural migrants and nomad, rarely urban, who do not often own urban facilities like telephone. So, data gathering conducted by face to face interview.

Tehran suburban areas were identified and then Shamsabad and Salehabad were randomly selected respectively. These two areas are closed to industrial brick furnaces in south of Tehran and their residents are immigrants from Mashhad and Kurdistan provinces. These two areas were considered as clusters and in each one a house was randomly selected as cluster head. Questioning was started from the first residential home and continued by moving to the right direction to complete the number of samples (30 people aged 18–64).

Inclusion criteria: all 18- to 64-year-old people who were at home at the time of interviewer attendance; no physical, mental or verbal problem; consent to participate in survey.

Interviewers received essential trainings and telephone questioning guidance before starting the study.


To provide data gathering tool, firstly worldwide valid questionnaires were searched and then assessed. Finally, Australian questionnaire was selected as the most comprehensive because it covered all aspects of mental health literacy.[12],[13] Validity and reliability of Persian version of questionnaire was done in our previous study.[10]

In this questionnaire, after introducing a vignette with a psychiatric disorder, participants were questioned in the domains of recognition of the disorder, intention to seek help, and attitudes toward social stigma.

Vignette's psychiatric disorder was flexible to select by researcher; for example, vignette suffering from depression, the most common psychiatric disorder used in this study, was as below:

”Maryam/Ali is 30 years old. He has been feeling unusually sad and miserable for the last few weeks. Even though he is tired all the time, he has trouble sleeping nearly every night. Maryam/Ali doesn't feel like eating and has lost weight. He can't keep his mind on his work and puts off making decisions. Even day-to-day tasks seem too much for him. This has come to the attention of his boss, who is concerned about Maryam/Ali's lowered productivity”. Age and sex of vignette character were matched with each participant.

Statistical analysis

Data was analyzed using SPSS 18 software. Descriptive findings were reported and t- tests or chi square test were used based on case. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

In order to determine the prediction value of demographic variables to participants' depression literacy in different domains, logistic regression analysis was performed. Recognition, help seeking and stigma were considered as independent variables and demographic variables were used as dependent variables. Age was divided in to groups (<40 and >=40 year).

In the domain of stigma, each of 5 questions received a 0 point for answers showing worse stigma and 1 point for answers showing less stigma, so the total score was from 0 to 5. The mean score of the stigma among participants was 3, so scores less than 3 was considered as worse stigma.

  Results Top

Finally, 1400 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Participants mean age was 37.2 ± 10.9 years. From them 559 (40%) were male and 844 (60%) were female.

The participants' demographic characteristics in Tehran and suburb are presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Demographic characteristics

Click here to view

The results of urban and suburban residents' depression literacy in the domains of recognition, help seeking and stigma are listed in [Table 2]. Stigma score in Tehran city and suburb was 3.1 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 1.1, respectively.
Table 2: Depression literacy in the domains of recognition, help seeking and stigma among Tehran and suburb residents

Click here to view

Logistic regression results revealed that female gender, age increasing, and higher education significantly scaled up the chance of correct recognition of depression [Table 3] when female gender, increasing age and being married could significantly improve the probability of seeking help if they had a problem [Table 3].
Table 3: Logistic regression for recognition, seeking help, and stigma

Click here to view

Logistic regression results also showed that being married and higher education predicted lower stigma [Table 3].

The analysis of correlation between recognition, help seeking, and stigma domains are presented in [Table 4].
Table 4: Correlation between recognition, help seeking, and stigma domains

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

Many people do not have a proper understanding of psychiatric disorders, which prevents them from seeking health care in this regard. Therefore, they do not receive adequate support for these disorders.[14] According to studies derived from different countries, people's knowledge about how to prevent mental disorders, recognition of progressing disease, help seeking, and awareness about existing treatments is inadequate.[15],[16]

This study examined the depression literacy of Tehran and suburban residents in relation to their ability to recognize the problem, help seeking and stigma.

The present study showed that the ability to recognize the disorder in Tehran city (53%) and the suburb (30%) was both low, which was consistent with the findings of the Sayarifard's study among Tehran University of Medical Sciences students, where less than 40% of students were able to correctly diagnose depression.[10] This finding was very low in comparison with the 70% achieved in a number of countries, including the Reavley's study [12] in Australian students and the Marie's study [14] in the New Zealand community, but more similar to the results of the Jorm,[17] Olsson,[18] and Amarasuriya [19] studies in Japan, America, and Sri Lanka.

Another study by Wong revealed that depression literacy among Chinese who lived in Australian were higher than those in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.[9]

Since diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder is the first step in seeking help and treatment, it seems that community education is so important in order to recognize the symptoms of this type of disorder and improving mental health literacy.

A national study in Australia demonstrated that in order to early diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in community and taking effective and proportionate interventions, mental health literacy should be improved which would also significantly promote the public's understanding of psychiatric disorders.[16]

Logistic regression in this study expressed that female gender, age increasing, and higher education significantly increased the likelihood of a correct depression diagnosis, which was similar to that found by Amarasuriya in Sri Lanka,[19] Reavley [12] in Australia and Furnham [20] in the United Kingdom. However, the finding on gender contradicted with results of Sayarifard [10] and Yeap [21] studies in Iran and Malaysia, respectively.

Considering this finding, special attention should be paid for educating men about the depression disorder.

Health literacy is considered as a set of personal abilities that enable people to acquire new information and use it to improve their health status.[22]

In this study, seeking help in Tehran and suburb residents was low in comparison with people in Reavley study (more than 80%),[12] Olsson study [18] in the United States (69%) and Tehran Medical University students (68%).[10]

Results of Logistic regression in this study demonstrated that female gender, age increasing, and being married could significantly raise the probability of seeking help in presence of similar problem.

In Amarasuriya [19] and Reavley [12] studies, seeking help among women was higher than men too.

While these findings might be reflecting actual mental health literacy deficits in men, meanwhile it could be also due to their masculine characteristics and their reluctance to acknowledge mental illness and seeking help.[23],[24]

In contrast, Sayarifard's study,[10] showed no significant difference between men and women considering seeking help.

Similar to present study, in Amarasuriya and Reavley studies [12],[19] depression literacy also increased with age and education. This issue could be justified considering that higher exposure with health information is more likely during the years.[20]

When participants were asked “what might stop from seeking help” the most and second prevalent causes in Tehran were “Concern about developing negative attitude towards person” and “Related cost” respectively, but in suburb, “Related cost” was the main cause.

Given that the related costs are one of the main barriers to seeking help both in Tehran and suburb, insurance coverage of such services may increase receiving assistance for those in need.

In this study the most requested helps in case of similar problem were from friends and family respectively, when use of services was in the final rank.

In Japan study [17] also community preferences about asking for help were friends and family, but in Australia, both students [12] and community [17] expressed the most requested help from the services.

For Australian students, the highest request for help after services was from friends,[12] which was similar to the current study.

Gulliver in a systematic review reported poor mental health literacy is a barrier to mental health help-seeking among adolescents and young adults.[25]

Family has a particular role in Iranian community and it could be considered as an important reason of high family request for help and should be noted in designing interventions.

This finding that help seeking from friends and family was higher than related services might be due to lack of knowledge about such services and the way these services were delivered in related centers, so it seems that promoting awareness about these services may improve help seeking from related centers.

However, further exploration is suggested to find out the barriers against using mental health services like counseling and going to a psychologist or psychiatrist.

In the present study, the majority of participants declared that psychiatric disorder was not a real medical illness, and this finding was similar to other studies in Australia,[12],[17] England,[26] and Iran university students.[10] Also, more than half agreed that they would not tell anyone if they had a problem like vignette.

Since correlation analysis revealed a significant relation between recognition, help seeking and stigma in consistency with findings by Reavley,[12] Clement,[27] Fernando,[28] Sharp,[29] and Yap [30] it seems that interventions in order to increase correct recognition and decrease stigma could be effective for promote seeking help among people in need.

However, there was not always consistency in the predictors of these two aspects of depression literacy, as seen in the case of year of study, indicating that depression literacy is a complex construct.

Hence, these depression literacy initiatives cannot be only limited to educating individuals about depression and seeking help for it, but need to also address the unique constellation of factors that might affect their knowledge and perceptions about depression and interfere with their help-seeking.

Considering the fact that participation was based on self-selection, it was possible that individuals without depression in addition to a greater knowledge and interest in mental health issues be more tended to participate in the study. Meanwhile the cross-sectional nature of the data might be another limitation of this study.

  Conclusions Top

The majority of people in Tehran and suburb were not able to recognize depression in a vignette. Among them, greater likelihood of correct recognition was associated with female gender, older age, and a higher level of education.

Help seeking in the case of having depression symptoms was low in Tehran and suburb residents when male gender and younger age decreased the likelihood of help seeking. Stigma had a significant relation with recognition of depression and help seeking.

Overall depression literacy in Tehran city and suburb was low, so intervention among target population in order to increase the depression literacy seems to be necessary.


We thank all people who help us to carry out this article.

This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and health Services grant 94-04-62-20178.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Patel V, Chisholm D, Parikh R, Charlson FJ, Degenhardt L, Dua T, et al. Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: Key messages from disease control priorities, 3rd edition. Lancet 2016;387:1672-85.  Back to cited text no. 1
Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA3.0 IGO. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/prevalence_global_health_estimates/en/. [Last accessed on 2019 May 01].  Back to cited text no. 2
Kaviani H, Ahmadi Abhari AS, Nazari H, Hormozi K. Prevalence of depressive disordrs in Tehran resident population. Tehran Univ Med J 2002;60:393-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: An Australian national study. BMC Public Health 2009;9:92.  Back to cited text no. 4
Jorm AF. Mental health literacy: Empowering the community to take action for better mental health. Am Psychol 2012;67:231-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
Chen S, Wu Q, Qi C, Deng H, Wang X, He H, et al. Mental health literacy about schizophrenia and depression: A survey among Chinese caregivers of patients with mental disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:89.  Back to cited text no. 6
Wu Q, Luo X, Chen S, Qi C, Long J, Xiong Y, et al. Mental health literacy survey of non-mental health professionals in six general hospitals in Hunan Province of China. PLoS One 2017;12:e0180327.  Back to cited text no. 7
Cheung YT, Ong YY, Ng T, Tan YP, Fan G, Chan CW, et al. Assessment of mental health literacy in patients with breast cancer. J Oncol Pharm Pract 2016;22:437-47.  Back to cited text no. 8
Wong DFK, Cheng CW, Zhuang XY, Ng TK, Pan SM, He X, et al. Comparing the mental health literacy of Chinese people in Australia, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: Implications for mental health promotion. Psychiatry Res 2017;256:258-66.  Back to cited text no. 9
Sayarifard A, Ghadirian L, Mohit A, Eftekhar M, Badpa M, Rajabi F. Assessing mental health literacy: What medical sciences students' know about depression. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015;26;29:161.  Back to cited text no. 10
O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys. BMC Med Res Methodol 2008;8:71.  Back to cited text no. 11
Reavley NJ, McCann TV, Jorm AF. Mental health literacy in higher education students. Early Interv Psychiatry 2012;6:45-52.  Back to cited text no. 12
Yap MB, Reavley N, Jorm AF. Where would young people seek help for mental disorders and what stops them? Findings from an Australian national survey. J Affect Disord 2013;147:255-61.  Back to cited text no. 13
Marie D, Forsyth DK, Miles LK. Categorical ethnicity and mental health literacy in New Zealand. Ethn Health 2004;9:225-52.  Back to cited text no. 14
Jorm AF, Korten AE, Jacomb PA, Christensen H, Rodgers B, Pollitt P. “Mental health literacy”: A survey of the public's ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. Med J Aust1997;17;166:182-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
Jorm AF. Mental health literacy. Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2000;177:396-401.  Back to cited text no. 16
Jorm AF, Nakane Y, Christensen H, Yoshioka K, Griffiths KM, Wata Y. Public beliefs about treatment and outcome of mental disorders: A comparison of Australia and Japan. BMC Med 2005;3:12.  Back to cited text no. 17
Olsson DP, Kennedy MG. Mental health literacy among young people in a small US town: Recognition of disorders and hypothetical helping responses. Early Interv Psychiatry 2010;4:291-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
Amarasuriya SD, Jorm AF, Reavley NJ. Quantifying and predicting depression literacy of undergraduates: A cross sectional study in Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry 2015;15:269.  Back to cited text no. 19
Furnham A, Cook R, Martin N, Batey M. Mental health literacy among university students. J Public Ment Health 2011;10:198-210.  Back to cited text no. 20
Yeap R, Low WY. Mental health knowledge, attitude and help-seeking tendency: A Malaysian context. Singapore Med J 2009;50:1169-76.  Back to cited text no. 21
Sayarifard A, Ghadirian L, Mental health literacy in Iran: An urgent need for a remedy. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:741-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
Swami V. Mental health literacy of depression: Gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample. PLoS One 2012;7:e49779.  Back to cited text no. 23
Tang MO, Oliffe JL, Galdas PM, Phinney A, Han CS. College men's depressionrelated help-seeking: A gender analysis. J Ment Health 2014;23:219-24.  Back to cited text no. 24
Gulliver A1, Griffiths KM, Christensen H. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: A systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 2010;10:113.  Back to cited text no. 25
Pinfold V, Toulmin H, Thornicroft G, Huxley P, Farmer P, Graham T. Reducing psychiatric stigma and discrimination: Evaluation of educational interventions in UK secondary schools. Br J Psychiatry2003;182:342-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Clement S, Schauman O, Graham T, Maggioni F, Evans-Lacko S, Bezborodovs N, et al. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychol Med 2015;45:11-27.  Back to cited text no. 27
Fernando SM, Deane FP, McLeod HJ. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka. Asia Pac Psychiatry 2017;9. doi: 10.1111/appy. 12255.  Back to cited text no. 28
Sharp ML, Fear NT, Rona RJ, Wessely S, Greenberg N, Jones N, et al. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems. Epidemiol Rev 2015;37:144-62.  Back to cited text no. 29
Yap MBH, Wright A, Jorm AF. The influence of stigma on young people's help-seeking intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of various sources of help. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2011;46:1257-65.  Back to cited text no. 30


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 High School Studentsí Depression Literacy about Interventions and Prevention: A Survey in Tehran
Zahra Khorrami, Azadeh Sayarifard, Shahrbanoo Ghahari, Nadereh Memaryan, Mohammadreza Pirmoradi, Laleh Ghadirian, Domenico De Berardis
Depression Research and Treatment. 2023; 2023: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Development of the Japanese version of the Depression Literacy Scale
Tomomi Imano, Kazuhito Yokoyama, Hiroaki Itoh, Eri Shoji, Keiko Asano
International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2022; : 0020764021
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 The status of depression literacy and its relationship with quality of life among Iranian public population: a cross sectional study
Hadi Tehrani, Mohebat Vali, Mahbobeh Nejatian, Mahdi Moshki, Elham Charoghchian Khorasani, Alireza Jafari
BMC Psychiatry. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Psychometric properties of Persian version of depression literacy (D-Lit) questionnaire among general population
Hadi Tehrani, Mahbobeh Nejatian, Mahdi Moshki, Alireza Jafari
International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 2022; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Evaluation of beliefs and attitudes among caregivers of child labor about mental disorders first aid and stigma
Laleh Ghadirian, Azadeh Sayarifard
BMC Psychology. 2022; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Mental Health Literacy and Mental Health Information-Seeking Behavior in Iranian University Students
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Mahmoodi, Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl, Mohammad Eslami, Mohadeseh Abdi, Yasamin Hosseini Kahnamoui, Maryam Rasoulian
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Can Sri Lankan Australians Recognise Depression? The Influence of Acculturation, Age and Experiences with Depression on Recognition
Amanda Daluwatta, Dushan Peiris, Kathryn Fletcher, Chris Ludlow, Greg Murray
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(22): 14839
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Population awareness of depression and treatment methods
Andrei V. Golenkov, Tatiana I. Bonkalo, Natalya N. Kamynina, Svetlana V. Shmeleva
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 A modified version of the mental health literacy scale (MHLS) in Iranian people
Mahbobeh Nejatian,Hadi Tehrani,Vahideh Momeniyan,Alireza Jafari
BMC Psychiatry. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 A survey of mental health literacy in Japanese high school teachers
Satoshi Yamaguchi,Jerome Clifford Foo,Yuko Kitagawa,Fumiharu Togo,Tsukasa Sasaki
BMC Psychiatry. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Mental health literacy and quality of life in Iran: a cross-sectional study
Alireza Jafari,Mahbobeh Nejatian,Vahideh Momeniyan,Fatemeh Ramezani Barsalani,Hadi Tehrani
BMC Psychiatry. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded368    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal