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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 149

Reproducibility of the persian version of the ABILOCO Questionnaire for Stroke Patients

1 School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol; School of Para Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
2 Dentistry School, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

Date of Submission08-Apr-2018
Date of Acceptance31-Oct-2019
Date of Web Publication10-Sep-2020

Correspondence Address:
Daryoush Didehdar
School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_164_18

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Background: The ABILOCO is a questionnaire assessing and measuring the locomotion ability to perform activities daily living from easy to hard in stroke patients. Methods: The ABILOCO was translated into Persian and retranslated into English. Forty hemiplegic stroke patients with an average age (60 ± 7.5 years) participated in the study. The participants were interviewed using ABILOCO and were assessed by the interviewer and observer. The total logit score of the participants was also assessed by using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The results were showed the high correlation between the first interview of interviewer and the observer (ICC = 0.8, P < 0.05). In addition, a strong relationship was observed between the interviewer's first and second interviews after a week (ICC = 0.85, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The Persian edition of ABILOCO is reliable to assess walking ability of stroke patients in clinics and studies.

Keywords: ABILOCO questionnaire, CVA, stroke

How to cite this article:
Didehdar D, Kharazinejad A. Reproducibility of the persian version of the ABILOCO Questionnaire for Stroke Patients. Int J Prev Med 2020;11:149

How to cite this URL:
Didehdar D, Kharazinejad A. Reproducibility of the persian version of the ABILOCO Questionnaire for Stroke Patients. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Sep 18];11:149. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2020/11/1/149/294698

  Introduction Top

Stroke is one of the most common neurological disorders,[1] resulting in chronic functional disability.[2],[3] Stroke patients experience difficulties of walking and moving even the following rehabilitation treatment. Patients' locomotion ability is assessed by various methods such as the walking analysis, walking observation, and self-report analysis.[4] One way of assessing the locomotion ability is questionnaire, being inexpensive, time-saving, and easier to use. ABILOCO consists of a 13-item Rasch-built questionnaire designed to assess the locomotion ability of adult patients with stroke.[5],[6],[7]

ABILOCO is a unidimensional questionnaire linearly assessing and measuring the locomotion ability to perform activities of daily living from easy to hard. The cross-cultural validity of the ABILOCO was approved to assess locomotion in adult stroke patients,[8] but no standard Persian ABILOCO questionnaire is available.

  Participants and Methods Top

This questionnaire was translated into Persian with the permission of Caty et al., the first authors of this scale [Table 1].[6] Another therapist translated the Persian ABILOCO version into English to compare it with the original version. Those parts of the Persian to English translation that did not comply with the original questionnaire were re-translated and compared until a translation similar to the original version was obtained.

Forty patients (25 male and 15 female patients) who had been suffering from stroke for 3 to 6 months (chronic phase) with an average age of 60 ± 7.5 years participated in this study. Furthermore, before setting the study, the research method was explained to the patients and then the patients signed consent forms. All of the participants were assessed twice with a one-week break by means of interviews using a questionnaire. To assess the inter-test consistency of the scale, the questionnaire was completed after a week by the interviewer similar to the first assessment. The raw information for each assessment was collected and analyzed online using a website introduced by the original author of ABILOCO and the Rasch analysis method to obtain the final logit value.[6]
Table 1: ABILOCO questionnaire

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The data were analyzed by 18 version of SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA). The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in the intra-rater test (between the observer and interviewer) and the inter-rater test (between the interviewer's first and second interviews) was used.

  Results Top

The original ABILOCO questionnaire was translated into Persian and re-translated into English to draw a comparison between the translated version and the original version. No significant difference was observed between the different parts of the ABILOCO after translating the original ABILOCO into Persian and re-translating it into English.

Intra-rater reliability: The calculated total logit ABILOCO score showed a high correlation between the first visit of the interviewer and the observer (P < 0.05, ICC = 0.83) [Chart 1].

Inter-rater reliability: The logit score of the ABILOCO scale revealed the strong inter-rater correlation between the interviewer's first and second visits (P < 0.05, ICC = 0.85) [Chart 2].

  Discussion Top

The ABILOCO scale is used to assess the locomotion ability of the patients at home and in treatment centers and societies. The ABILOCO scale has the following advantages over the similar questionnaire[9],[10],[11],[12]:

  1. It can be completed more easily, quickly, and inexpensively
  2. It is capable of assessing the mobility of patients and their limited participation in real-life activities
  3. It allows for the regular assessment of a large number of patients.[5]

The reliability and validity of the ABILOCO have been assessed and confirmed in the previous research.[5],[6],[7],[8] In addition, the reproducibility of the Korean translation of the scale was examined and confirmed.[7] Similar to the previous research,[5],[6],[7] the present research results reflected the high correlation between the data recorded using the Persian ABILOCO version by the observer and the interviewer's first interview (ICC = 0.83), and the correlation between the first record and the data after a week by the interviewer (ICC = 0.85). According to these results, the Persian translation of the ABILOCO scale was accurate, and this measure could be used to assess stroke patients.

The advantage of the ABILOCO is that 10 various combinations of questions are arranged randomly in this questionnaire to reduce the learning effect.[6],[13] Moreover, its value can be changed to a quantity of logit value to provide statistical comparisons.[7] In any case, this questionnaire cannot assess the mental and psychological behavior of patients, and thus stroke patients with mental and psychological conditions cannot be assessed by this questionnaire.

In conclusion, the ABILOCO has good quality in assessing the locomotion ability of stroke patients. It is also reliable, economical, and clinically applicable.[6],[7],[14] The results of the current study revealed that the Persian translation of ABILOCO had high reproducibility of intra-rater and inter-rater tests similar to the original ABILOCO.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patients have given their consent for their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Feigin VL, Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Barker-Collo SL, Parag V. Worldwide stroke incidence and early case fatality reported in 56 population-based studies: A systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2009;8:355-69.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mendis S. Stroke disability and rehabilitation of stroke: World Health Organization perspective. Int J stroke 2013;8:3-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;380:2197-223.  Back to cited text no. 3
Pinto-Carral A, Fernández-Villa T, de la Torre AJM. Patient-reported mobility: A systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2016;97:1182-94.  Back to cited text no. 4
Caty GD, Theunissen E, Lejeune TM. Reproducibility of the ABILOCO questionnaire and comparison between self-reported and observed locomotion ability in adult patients with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009;90:1061-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
Caty GD, Arnould C, Stoquart GG, Thonnard JL, Lejeune TM. ABILOCO: A Rasch-built 13-item questionnaire to assess locomotion ability in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89:284-90.  Back to cited text no. 6
Lee WJ, Park GY, Han ZA, Kim HW, Cho SU, Oh SJ, et al. Korean version of the ABILOCO questionnaire in the assessment of locomotion in hemiplegic stroke patients. Ann Rehabil Med 2013;37:72-81.  Back to cited text no. 7
Avelino PR, Magalhães LC, Faria-Fortini I, Basílio ML, Menezes KKP, Teixeira-Salmela LF. Cross-cultural validity of the ABILOCO questionnaire for individuals with stroke, based on Rasch analysis. Disabil Rehabil 2017;40:1310-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
Vandervelde L, Van den Bergh PY, Goemans N, Thonnard JL. ACTIVLIM: A Rasch-built measure of activity limitations in children and adults with neuromuscular disorders. Neuromuscl Disord 2007;17:459-69.  Back to cited text no. 9
Caty GD, Detrembleur C, Bleyenheuft C, Deltombe T, Lejeune TM. Effect of simultaneous botulinum toxin injections into several muscles on impairment, activity, participation, and quality of life among stroke patients presenting with a stiff knee gait. Stroke 2008;39:2803-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
Ekstrand E, Lindgren I, Lexell J, Brogårdh C. Test-retest reliability of the ABILHAND questionnaire in persons with chronic stroke. Prev Med Rep 2014;6:324-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
Vandervelde L, Van den Bergh PY, Penta M, Thonnard JL. Validation of the ABILHAND questionnaire to measure manual ability in children and adults with neuromuscular disorders. JNeurol Neurosur Psych 2010;81:506-12.  Back to cited text no. 12
Solovey G, Shalom D, Pérez-Schuster V, Sigman M. Perceptual learning effect on decision and confidence thresholds. Conscious Cogn 2016;45:24-36.  Back to cited text no. 13
Pearson OR, Busse ME, van Deursen RW, Wiles CM. Quantification of walking mobility in neurological disorders. QJM 2004 97:463-75.  Back to cited text no. 14


  [Table 1]


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