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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 166

Therapeutic dimensions of bisphosphonates: A clinical update

1 Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, UAE
3 Department of Pharmacology, Health City University, Saint Lucia, USA

Correspondence Address:
Venkataramana Vannala
College of Dentistry, Gulf Medical University, Ajman
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_33_19

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Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a commonly used class of drugs for the treatment of bone disorders. An extensive review of BPs with their clinical efficacy and safety profile is unavailable. This study aimed to review the available literature on BPs, summarize their role in clinical therapy, and emphasize their safety profile. Authors reviewed the existing literature using the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Micromedex databases and analyzed the collected articles. BPs are the preferred medication for osteoporosis and other similar conditions owing to their efficient antiosteoclastic activity. Few of them are available in oral dosage forms; hence, they are patient-friendly. The mechanism of action, common adverse effects and their clinical applications, precautions and warnings pertaining to the route of administration, and safety profiles have been discussed in this manuscript. The common adverse effects are majorly related to the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and endocrine system. Upon chronic usage, patients may experience serious problems like osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical bone fractures. Although BPs are effective and safe, they may cause GI adverse effects and rare cases of osteonecrosis. Patient counseling could prove beneficial in early identification and prevention of the adverse effects associated with BPs.

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