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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 174

Ways to Prevent the Risk for Cancer and Catch Cancer Early

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Rush University Medical Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Date of Submission14-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance09-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication09-Nov-2020

Correspondence Address:
Farahnak Assadi
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Rush University Medical Sciences, !804 E. North Water Street, Suite 1804, Chicago, Illinois 60611
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_64_20

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How to cite this article:
Assadi F. Ways to Prevent the Risk for Cancer and Catch Cancer Early. Int J Prev Med 2020;11:174

How to cite this URL:
Assadi F. Ways to Prevent the Risk for Cancer and Catch Cancer Early. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 1];11:174. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2020/11/1/174/300435

Editorial Comment.

The possibility of getting cancer is affected by many factors, including age, lifestyle, weight, environmental factors, and family history and genetic predisposition. Some things cannot be controlled. However, 12 helpful measures that can lower risk for cancer are in the following.

  • Quit smoking. Tobacco use increases the risk for many kinds of cancer and other diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Quitting smoking can lower risk for cancer[1],[2]

  • Vaccinate. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for anyone between 9 and 45 years old. It helps prevent multiple kinds of cancer, including cervical, anal, and head and neck.[3],[4] The hepatitis B vaccine helps prevent liver cancer[5]

  • Avoid direct sun exposure. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun's rays can cause skin cancer, including basal, squamous, and melanoma. Use sunscreen with SPF of 30 or higher when outside. Do not use tanning beds and lamps[6]

  • Exercise. Overweight and an inactive lifestyle are associated with increased cancer risk. Two to four hours of moderate-to-hard physical activity every week can lower the risk of cancer[7]

  • Eat healthy. Studies have linked red and proceeded meats to colorectal cancer risk. Diets high in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, and low in red and processed meats are linked with lower colorectal cancer risk[8],[9],[10]

  • Avoid alcohol intake. Alcohol raises the risk for oral, threat, esophageal, liver, breast, and colon cancers. Even 3 to 4 drinks a week increase the risk for cancer. Make informed decisions about when and how much you drink[11]

  • Lung cancer. If you smoke now or you are a former smoker or have a history of exposure to secondhand smoke over 55, you should consult an internist about screening to catch cancer early[12]

  • Colorectal cancer. Yearly testing of a sample of bowel movement or a colonoscopy every 10 years after 45 years can catch colorectal cancer and pre-cancers early[13]

  • Breast cancer. Get a yearly mammogram if you are a woman of over 45. If you have a known BRCA mutation or other factors linked to increased risk, you should start getting a yearly mammogram at age 30[14]

  • Skin cancer. Watch your skin for changes in size, appearance, or number of moles you have. A biopsy from a dermatologist can tell if it is cancer

  • Cervical cancer. Every 3 years, women over 21 should have the Pap test. After age 30, women should get both the Pap and HPV test every 3-5 years[15]

  • Prostate cancer. Risk factors for prostate cancer are different for each man based on family history and ethnicity. Men over 45 who are at higher risk should be tested.[16]

  References Top

Ramos CP, Eissenberg T, Sahingur SE. Increasing popularity of water pipe tobacco smoking and electronic cigarette use: Implications for oral healthcare. J Periodontal Res 2017;52:813-23.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M; Writing Group Members. Executive summary-2016 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016;133:447-54.  Back to cited text no. 2
Wiezbicka M, Berkhof JH, Dickerson FG. Prophylactic human papilloma virus vaccination in head and neck: indications and future prospectives. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019;27:85-90.  Back to cited text no. 3
Wielogs AA, Pietrzak B. Human papilloma virus-related premalignat and malignant leasions of the cervix and anogenital tract in immunocompromised women. Ginekol Pol 2020;91:32-37.  Back to cited text no. 4
Database FM, Lliyasu G, Ahmad BG, Bako AT, Ngamariju SS, Habib AG. Hepatitis B vaccine knowledge and self-reported vaccination status among healthcare workers in a conflict region in Northeastern Nigeria. Adv Vaccines Immunither 2020;8:2515135519900743. doi: 10.1177/2515135519900743.  Back to cited text no. 5
Wear like KJ, Henrikson NB, Morrison CC, Nguyen M, Pocobelli G, Bladi PR. Screening for skin cancer in adults: Updated evidence report and systematic review fit the US preventive services task force. JAMA 20166;316:436-47.  Back to cited text no. 6
Zhang YB, Pan XF, Chen J, Cao A, Zhang YG, Xia L, et al. Combined lifestyle factors, incident cancer, and cancer morbidity: A systematic review and meta analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Cancer 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41416-020-0741-x.  Back to cited text no. 7
Sacks FM, Campos H. Dietary therapy in hypertension. N Engl J Med 2010;362:2102-12.  Back to cited text no. 8
Hardens KE, Frayn KN, Hodson L. Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH): Applicability and acceptability to a UK population. J Hum Nutr Diet 2012;23:3-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
Biagi C, Nunzio MD, Bordoni A, Lanari M. Effect of adherence to Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on children's health: A systemic review. Nutrirnts 2019;11. Pil: E997. doi: 10.3390/nu11050997.  Back to cited text no. 10
Addolorato G, Abenavo, I L, Dallio M, Federico A, Germani G, Gitto S, et al. Alcohol associated liver disease 2020: A clinical practice guideline by the Italian association for the study of the liver (AISF). Dig Liver Dis 2020. pii: S1590-8658(19)30958-2. doi:19.1016/Jiddah.2019.12.008.  Back to cited text no. 11
Oudkerk M, Devaraj A, Vliegenthartv R, Henzler T, Prosch H, Heussel CP, et al. European position statement on lung cancer screening. Lancet Oncol 2017;18:e754-66. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30861-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
Issa IA, Noureddine M. Colorectal cancer screening: An updated review of the available options. World J Gastroenterol 2017;23:5086-96.  Back to cited text no. 13
Coleman C. Early detection and screening for breast cancer. Semin Oncol Nurs 2017;33:141-55  Back to cited text no. 14
Sawaya GF, Smith-McCune K, Kuppermann M. Cervical cancer screening: More choices in 2019. JAMA 2019;321:2018-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
Catalona WJ. Prostate cancer screening. Med Clin North Am 2018;102:199-214.  Back to cited text no. 16


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