|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 56
Prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular disease in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Moloud Fakhri1, Diana Sarokhani2, Bahareh Ghiasi3, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi4
1 Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2 Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
3 Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran, Iran
4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
|Date of Submission||01-Aug-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||12-Feb-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Apr-2020|
Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord
Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Hypertension is a major cause of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran by meta-analysis. Methods: The search was carried out using authentic Persian and English keywords in national and international databases including IranMedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranDoc, Medlib, ScienceDirect, PubMed , Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar search engine without any time limitation until 2017. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using I2 statistic . Data were analyzed using STATA 11.1. Results: In 66 reviewed studies with a sample of 111,406 participants, the prevalence of hypertension was 44% in Iranian patients with cardiovascular disease 67%(95%CI: 38%–49%) in women and 42% in men. The prevalence of systolic hypertension in cardiac patients was 25%, diastolic 20%, diabetes 27%, and overexposure 43%. The prevalence of hypertension was 44% in patients with coronary artery disease, 50% in myocardial infarction, 33% in aortic aneurysm, and 44% in cardiac failure. Conclusions: Hypertension has a higher prevalence in women with cardiovascular disease than men, and it increases with age. Among patients with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction patients have the highest levels of hypertension. The prevalence of systolic hypertension in cardiac patients is higher than diastolic hypertension.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, Iran, meta-analysis
|How to cite this article:|
Fakhri M, Sarokhani D, Ghiasi B, Dehkordi AH. Prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular disease in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med 2020;11:56
|How to cite this URL:|
Fakhri M, Sarokhani D, Ghiasi B, Dehkordi AH. Prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular disease in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2023 Mar 23];11:56. Available from: https://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2020/11/1/56/283670
| Introduction|| |
Chronic illness has the greatest impact on psychological function, and subsequently, quality of life, self care, physical and social performance is also affected.,, Cardiovascular diseases are the most common chronic diseases among the middle-aged that affects the quality of life. [4,5] High blood pressure is the increase in pressure from the bloodstream to the wall of the blood vessels. According to the World Health Organization, hypertension is systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg. If not treated, the disease causes many complications in vital organs such as the kidneys, the brain, the eyes, and the heart. This study has shown that hypertension is one of the major causes of disability and mortality, and a relative reduction in blood pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and renal failure. In fact, the higher the risk of hypertension, the greater the chance of stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and renal failure. In 2000, the global prevalence of hypertension was 26.4%, and it is predicted that by 2025, about 1.54 billion adults would suffer from this disease.
With a prevalence of 39%, cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in Iran and are the most common cause of premature death in different societies, and about 138,000 deaths are reported every year., Considering that hypertension is a global problem, the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension is a long-lasting relationship, and therefore, prevention and control of hypertension are considered as highly important public health goals. Overall, high blood pressure is one of the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the most common cause of heart failure. Changes in epidemiological pattern of diseases in developed and developing countries, increased life expectancy, increase in psychological stress caused by urbanization, and changes in eating habits made this disease a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.,,,,,,, Considering that various studies in Iran reported different statistics ranging from 4% to 91% for the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients, the need for a meta-analysis study seems necessary.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis study of the prevalence of hypertension in Iranian cardiovascular patients. This study was conducted based on the Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis statement, which is concerned with systematic review and meta-analysis studies. Based on this protocol, all stages of the research methodology such as search, selection of studies, qualitative assessment of studies, and data extraction from the studies were conducted by two researchers independently. If there was a difference in the report of the researchers, the third researcher investigated and resolved the dispute.
This is a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran by reviewing existing articles from 1985 to 2017. To collect data, national and international databases including IranMedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranDoc, Medlib, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar search engine were used.
The search was carried out independently by two researchers using Persian keywords and their English equivalent (“Iran,” “Meta-analysis,” “Cardiovascular,” and “Hypertension”). For the comprehensiveness of the search, the keywords were combined using “OR” and “AND” operators, and references to all articles related to the subject were also manually examined.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The main criteria for inclusion in this study were reference to the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients. Exclusion criteria included lack of relevance to the subject, inadequate data, statistical community other than cardiac patients, and non-random sample size.
After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria and determining the related studies, the methodological quality of the studies was examined by two researchers. For this purpose, the standard STROBE checklist was used. This checklist consists of 22 different sections that assess various aspects of the methodology including sampling methods, variable measurement, statistical analysis, modification of confounding variables, validity and reliability specifications of the tools used, and the objectives of the study.
Based on the description presented in the first step, 354 possibly related articles were found on the prevalence of hypertension in cardiac patients. Out of these articles, 187 articles were removed due to duplication. Abstract of the remaining 167 articles was reviewed, and 49 other articles were omitted. The full text of 118 remaining articles was reviewed, and 52 articles were deleted due to meeting the exclusion criteria. Finally, 66 articles entered the meta-analysis process [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Diagram of the process of selecting studies for systematic review and meta-analysis|
Click here to view
To reduce reporting bias and error in data collection, two researchers independently extracted data from articles and entered the data into a checklist containing the following items: name of the first author, title of study, sample size, year and place of research, the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients based on gender, the prevalence of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, prevalence of diabetes, overweight, body mass index (BMI) in cardiovascular patients, and so on.
To analyze and combine the results of various studies, the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients was considered as a binomial probability distribution, and its variance was calculated by binomial distribution in each study. Heterogeneity of studies was investigated using Q test and I index. Regarding the heterogeneity of the studies, the random effect model was used to combine the results of various studies. The data were analyzed using STATA Ver. 11 and P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Meta-regression model was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients and the sample size and year of research. The sensitivity analysis was used to determine whether omitting one study would affect the final meta-analysis result.
| Results|| |
In systematic review of studies, 66 articles with a sample size of 111,406 entered the meta-analysis process. The characteristics of the reviewed articles are presented in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Specifications of the articles that entered the meta-analysis step|
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The prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38%–49%) [Diagram 1]. The lowest and highest prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients were in the studies of Moeini (4%) and Esteghamati (91%), respectively.
The prevalence of hypertension was 67% in women with cardiovascular disease (95% CI: 53%–82%) and 42% in men with cardiovascular disease (95% CI: 39%–46%).
In addition, the prevalence of systolic hypertension was 25% (95% CI: 12%–39%), the prevalence of diastolic hypertension was 20% (95% CI: 8%–31%), the prevalence of diabetes was 27% (95% CI: 23%–31%), the prevalence of overweight was 34% (95% CI: 18%–50%), and the prevalence of BMI was 33% (95% CI: 9%–57%) in cardiovascular patients [Table 2].
|Table 2: Prevalence of hypertension in patients with cardiovascular diseases in the studied subgroups|
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The prevalence of hypertension was 44% in patients with CAD (95% CI: 37%–51%), 50% in patients with myocardial infarction (95% CI: 8%–93%), 33% in patients with aortic aneurysm (95% CI: 14%–52%), and 44% in patients with heart failure (95% CI: 34%–54%). The highest prevalence of hypertension was in patients with myocardial infarction.
In an analysis based on age group, the prevalence of hypertension was 14% in cardiovascular patients aged 40 to 49 years old (95% CI: 8%–20%), 46% in patients aged 50 to 59 years old (95% CI: 42%–49%), and 48% in patients aged 60 to 69 years old (95% CI: 37%–59%); there was only one study in the age group of 70 years old and above, and the prevalence of hypertension in other age groups was 39% (95% CI: 28%–50%). In fact, the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients has increased with increasing age.
In the analysis of the geographical regions, the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients was 49% in the north of Iran (95% CI: 42%–57%), 32% in the center (95% CI: 22%–42%), 33% in west (95% CI: 17%–49%), 43% in east (95% CI: 36%–49%), and 29% in the south (95% CI: 0%–67%) in just one study. The highest and lowest prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients was in the north and south of Iran, respectively.
In [Diagram 2], meta-regression showed no significant relationship between the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients and sample size (P = 0.271). In addition, there was no significant relationship between the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients and the year of study in [Diagram 3] (P = 0.675).
| Discussion|| |
The prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran was 44%, which was 67% in women and 42% in men. Asmar et al. reported the prevalence of hypertension in French men and women to be 37.9 and 22.2, respectively. In this study, the prevalence of hypertension in women was higher, which is consistent with the results of this study.
Across the WHO regions, the prevalence of raised blood pressure was highest in Africa, where it was 46% for both sexes combined. Both men and women have high rates of raised blood pressure in the Africa region, with prevalence rates over 40%. The lowest prevalence of raised blood pressure was in the WHO region of the Americas at 35% for both sexes. Men in this region had higher prevalence than women (39% for men and 32% for women). In all WHO regions, men have slightly higher prevalence of raised blood pressure than women. This difference was only statistically significant in the Americas and Europe.
Several meta-analysis have been conducted on blood pressure in different countries, which we will mention later. Results from 23 analyses in 2016 were excluded from main analyses owing to high risks of confounding. Increased long-term variability in systolic blood pressure was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.09–1.22), cardiovascular disease mortality (1.18, 95% CI: 1.09–1.28), cardiovascular disease events (1.18, 95% CI: 1.07–1.30), coronary heart disease (1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.16), and stroke (1.15, 95% CI: 1.04–1.27). Increased mid-term and short-term variability in daytime systolic blood pressure were also associated with all-cause mortality (1.15, 95% CI: 1.06–1.26, and 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.16, respectively). In a research, 42 studies with 402,282 participants were included. We estimated prevalence of hypertension in Iran during 1980–2012 (I = 99%). The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension was 22% (95% CI: 20.2–23.8). The prevalence of hypertension was 23.6% (95% CI: 21.1–26.1) in men and 23.5% (95% CI: 20.2–23.8) in women. In urban areas, the prevalence of hypertension was 22.1% (95% CI: 19.4–24.7(. In this study, there was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension between men and women. In other research, from 100 articles in 2017 in Iran which were found in the searched references, 22 of them were finally analyzed. Among the selected final articles from 1999 to 2012, 96,689 participants participated in this study. The prevalence of hypertension was 17%. The prevalence rate of hypertension among the people aged above 20 years was between 10% and 32% and its mean was 24% (95% CI: 23%–24%). As we see, the prevalence of hypertension in heart patients in Iran is higher than normal people, which is evident.
In a study, a total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% CI: 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI: 33.1–45.2). In other research of a total of 1240 articles, 18 studies comprising 42,618 participants met the eligibility criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in Pakistani adolescents was 26.34% (25.93%, 26.75%). Prevalence of hypertension in Pakistani adolescents is lower than that of cardiovascular patients in Iran.
Overall prevalence of hypertension was 17%, with 21.4% in the urban population and 14.8% in the rural population. Prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in India is lower than that of cardiovascular patients in Iran. Overall prevalence for hypertension in India was 29.8% (95% CI: 26.7–33.0). Prevalence of hypertension in Indian populations is lower than that of cardiovascular patients in Iran. In 32 reviewed studies with a sample of 34,714 participants, the prevalence of hypertension in Iranian diabetic patients was 51% (95% CI: 43%–60%). Therefore, the prevalence of hypertension in Iran is higher in patients with heart disease than in diabetic patients.
Meta-regression showed no significant relationship between the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients and the research sample size (P = 0.271); that is, in studies with larger sample sizes (larger circle), the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients increased, but this increase is not statistically significant [Diagram 2]. There was no significant relationship between the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients and the year of study (P = 0.675); according to Diagram 3, during the years 1985–2017, the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran was almost constant, but this is not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients in Iran after omitting the study of Esteghamati decreased to 42.66 (95% CI: 37.83%–47.50%), and after omitting the study of Moeini increased to 44.18 (95% CI: 39.35%–49.01%), and these two studies are the most effective studies in the final meta-analysis.
According to a study, the prevalence of heart failure in England was 7.79%. In a study among American people aged 18 to 74 years based on the definition of hypertension (hypertension over 140/90), the prevalence of hypertension was 29.2%. In another study published by Vasan in Framingham in 2001, 14.7% of people with high blood pressure suffered from cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. In United States, 83.6 million people have at least one type of CAD. According to the International Center for Health Statistics, in 2012, 6.8% of people over the age of 18 in Asia had heart disease, 4.5% had CAD, and 21.2% had high blood pressure. Studies in Spain show that the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure (37.6%) and diabetes (6.2%) is high. In a study titled “Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children in the United States” by Barton et al., 22.3% of them had systolic and diastolic blood pressures above the 90th percentile.
The limitations of the study include insufficient information in some articles, the lack of uniform distribution of studies in different regions of Iran, since only two studies were conducted in the south Iran; some studies were conducted on cardiovascular patients and healthy participants, and the prevalence of hypertension was not reported separately for each group.
The benefits of the study: This article, for the first time in Iran, studies the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients with a systematic and meta-analytic review. It also expresses the prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients, in terms of men and women, and the severity of systolic and diastolic hypertension.
| Conclusions|| |
The prevalence of hypertension in cardiovascular patients is high in Iran and is higher among women, and the problem increases with age. Among patients with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction patients have the highest levels of hypertension. The prevalence of systolic blood pressure in cardiac patients is more than diastolic hypertension, and cardiac patients in the north of Iran are more likely to have hypertension than patients in other regions of Iran.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]