|Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Maliheh Ghandehari, Marjan Mansourian, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Shiva Samasamshariat, Erfan Sadeghi
Int J Prev Med 2019, 10:183 (9 October 2019)
Background: Many studies have focused on the relationship between naloxone and seizure in tramadol poisoning but the results are in conflict. We performed a meta-analysis study to see whether naloxone prevents or increase the risk of seizure in tramadol poisoning. Methods: Bibliographic literature searches were conducted in the ISI Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Cochrane from January 1990 to December 2017 for relevant articles. Pooled data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The outcome includes seizure. To investigate the publication bias, Begg's and Egger's tests were used along with funnel plot as a graphical test. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed I2, 27%, (P value, 0.23) indicating no significant heterogeneity. As a result, using the fixed effect, the OR was 1.14 (95% CI = 0.60–2.18, P value, 0.69) which was not significant, means naloxone did not increase the risk of seizure. Conclusions: Naloxone therapy did not increase the risk of seizure significantly in the treatment of acute tramadol poisoning. We suggest considering the risk/benefit when administration naloxone, especially for the seizure risk factors including previous history of seizure, tramadol misuse, and co-ingestion.
|Seyed Abdol Reza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Jalal Ghaderkhani, Ali Nazari, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Iraj Pakzad
Int J Prev Med 2019, 10:169 (9 October 2019)
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases ranking next to upper respiratory tract infections. UTIs are often significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. The inappropriate administration of antibiotics to treat these infections increased infection resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance pattern in UTIs. Methods: We searched several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran, IranDoc, MedLib, and Scientific Information Database to identify the studies addressing antibacterial resistance patterns of the most common uropathogenic bacteria in UTIs in Iran. A total of 90 reports published from different regions of Iran from 1992 to May 2015 were involved in this study. Results: It is shown that the most common pathogen causing UTIs is Escherichia coli with 62%. The resistance among the isolates of E. coli was as follows: ampicillin (86%), amoxicillin (76%), tetracycline (71%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64%), cephalexin (61%), and cefalothin (60%). The highest sensitivity among isolates of E. coli was as follows: imipenem (86%), nitrofurantoin (82%), amikacin (79%), chloramphenicol (72%), and ciprofloxacin (72%). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the most common resistance are antibiotics that are commonly used. The most effective antibiotics for E. coli were imipenem, nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Considering this study, it had better, use less gentamicin, second-generation cephalosporins, and nalidixic acid in the initial treatment of infections caused by E. coli, and no use penicillins, tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole, and first-generation cephalosporins.