|Sajjad Rahimi Pordanjani, Ali Rahimi Pordanjani, Hasan Askarpour, Mehrdad Arjmand, Masoudeh Babakhanian, Masoud Amiri, Elaheh Mazaheri
Int J Prev Med 2022, 13:151 (28 November 2022)
This is a comprehensive review based on the published papers in the field of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines to combat this pandemic. Since December 2020, more than 200 vaccines have been tested in various research stages and in clinical trials on humans, of which eight vaccines reached phase four clinical trials in humans and approved by FDA and EUA. After the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine that had the highest efficacy (95%), the efficacy of the other vaccines are as follows: Moderna 94.5%, Sputnik V 91%, Novavax 89.7%, Sinopharm 79.3%, Oxford/AstraZenaca 70.4%, Johnson and Johnson 66.9%, and Sinovac 50.7%. At present, protein-based vaccines, with 35% of all available COVID-19 vaccines, are the most common technique in the vaccine production, and then there are vaccines of non-replicating viral vector (13.3%), mRNA1 (12.1%), DNA (10.2%), replicating viral vector (9.8%), and inactivated vaccines (8.2%). The most frequently recognized adverse effects within 7 days of each vaccine dose involved fever, fatigue, headache, chill, and myalgia. The mRNA-based vaccines were associated with a higher occurrence of local side effects (78.3 vs. 70.4%; Sig. = 0.064), whereas the viral vector-based vaccine was associated with a higher prevalence of systemic side effects (87.2 vs. 61%; Sig. < 0.001). Based on the evidence and articles in the field of vaccination, AstraZeneca-Oxford and Sinopharm vaccines reported the highest and lowest side effects, respectively. Because of being emerging, pathogenicity, and high infectivity of COVID-19, vaccination against the disease to prevent its incident rate and decrease the prevalence rate is recommended immediately. Being informed of various aspects of the existing vaccines such as efficacy, effectiveness, safety, etc.can accelerate to make effective and useful choices and consequently have a vaccinated community against the epidemic.