Int J Prev Med 2021, 12:23 (24 February 2021)
Background: Tobacco smoking is one of the most preventable causes of mortality related to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to estimate the direct economic burden and years of life lost (YLL) attributable to smoking in NCDs in Mashhad, 2015–2016. Methods: Hospital-based data were utilized to calculate the economic burden of four selected diseases related to smoking. An epidemiological population-attributable risk method was used to determine the smoking-attributable fraction (SAF). Moreover, the study was conducted by data related to disease-specific expenditures and patients' information on cost and the number of mortality for estimating the YLL for each disease, population and life expectancy data, the prevalence of smoking, and the relative risk of smoking. Data analysis was performed with STATA software, version 12. Results: The total costs attributable to smoking for stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer were 94148, 151272, 1191396, and 574784 US Dollars, respectively (per 100000). In 2015, the YLL per deaths due to COPD were 4217 and 3522 among males and females, respectively. Furthermore, in 2016, the YLL per deaths due to the stroke in males and females were 8317 and 7563, respectively. In the same year, the highest proportion of years of potential life lost per 100000 smoking-attributable deaths belonged to COPD. Conclusions: The results of this study can be used to inform policy-makers about smoking-attributable diseases in Iran. To decrease the smoking-attributable costs, which have resulted in the spread of NCDs, policy-makers should adopt and implement effective policies regarding smoking prevention and control.
Int J Prev Med 2021, 12:22 (24 February 2021)
Background: The identification of elderly at risk of new functional disabilities in activities of daily living at admission to the hospital may facilitate referral for purposive interventions to prevent decline and institutionalization. This study was aimed at designing a risk prediction model for identifying the elderly at risk of admission in Iran's hospitals. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 2017. In order to formulate and validate a prediction model, the study was done in two development and validation cohort study. Functional decline was defined as a decline of at least one point on the Katz ADL index at follow-up compared with preadmission status. Results: In development cohort, the mean age was 71 years including 54% of men and 46% women, 22% of men and 17% of women experienced functional decline after 3 months. In the validation cohort, the mean age was 70 years, including 49% of men and 51% women, 19% of men and 15% of women, functional decline after 3 months was observed. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, aging at risk of hospital admission can be identified by easy designed model with four questions: (1) Is the patient's age more than 85 years? (2) Does the patient's mini mental status <22? (3) Does the patient need help for using general transporting? (4) Has the patient lost weight <5% over the past 6 months and body mass index <18.5? And also geriatrics experts can use the designed model as a predictive tool in order to improve the quality level of healthcare services to elderly as a vulnerable and high risk group. The important point of model is easy to use even for nonspecialists.