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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Simvastatin treatment does not affect serum Vitamin D concentrations in patients with dyslipidemia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial
Mohsen Mazidi, Haleh Rokni, Amir Hossein Sahebkar, Akram Mohammadi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns
2016, 7:80 (8 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.183652  PMID:27330686
Background: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are antihyperlipidemic drugs with an established efficacy in stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques and preventing atherogenesis and reducing cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on serum Vitamin D status in dyslipidemic patients as Vitamin D status has an impact on monocyte/macrophage function and may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. Methods: Selected individuals (n = 102) were treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day), or matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Each treatment period (with simvastatin or placebo) lasted for 30 days and was separated by a 2-week washout phase. Serum Vitamin D concentration was assessed pre- and post-treatment. Results: Seventy-seven completed the trial, noncompliance with the study protocol and drug intolerance or relocation were the causes for drop-out. No significant carry-over effect was observed for the assessed parameters. There was a reduction in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, simvastatin therapy did not significantly affect serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Vitamin D level (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Short-term treatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) does not have a significant affect on serum levels of Vitamin D.
  19,265 3,349 7
LETTER TO EDITOR
Sharing cigarette smoking and COVID-19 outbreak in a party group
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
2020, 11:50 (23 April 2020)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_121_20  
  18,686 268 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Penile inflammatory skin disorders and the preventive role of circumcision
Brian J Morris, John N Krieger
2017, 8:32 (4 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_377_16  PMID:28567234
Penile inflammatory skin conditions such as balanitis and posthitis are common, especially in uncircumcised males, and feature prominently in medical consultations. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cohrane databases using keywords “balanitis,” “posthitis,” “balanoposthitis,” “lichen sclerosus,” “penile inflammation,” and “inflammation penis,” along with “circumcision,” “circumcised,” and “uncircumcised.” Balanitis is the most common inflammatory disease of the penis. The accumulation of yeasts and other microorganisms under the foreskin contributes to inflammation of the surrounding penile tissue. The clinical presentation of inflammatory penile conditions includes itching, tenderness, and pain. Penile inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore important. While topical antifungal creams can be used, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision. Data from meta-analyses showed that circumcised males have a 68% lower prevalence of balanitis than uncircumcised males and that balanitis is accompanied by a 3.8-fold increase in risk of penile cancer. Because of the high prevalence and morbidity of penile inflammation, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients, circumcision should be more widely adopted globally and is best performed early in infancy.
  18,020 839 18
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study
Masoumeh Dejman, Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani, Bahareh Malekafzali, Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi, Minoo Mohraz
2015, 6:126 (23 December 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.172540  PMID:26900440
Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually. Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations. Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.
  14,679 581 11
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
The effect of yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression in women
Masoumeh Shohani, Gholamreza Badfar, Marzieh Parizad Nasirkandy, Sattar Kaikhavani, Shoboo Rahmati, Yaghoob Modmeli, Ali Soleymani, Milad Azami
2018, 9:21 (21 February 2018)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_242_16  PMID:29541436
Background: In recent decades, several medical and scientific studies on yoga proved it to be very useful in the treatment of some diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression in women living in Ilam, Iran. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test. To collect data, the questionnaire of DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21) was used. For eligible samples, hatha yoga exercises and training sessions were held for 4 weeks (3 time/weeks; 60-70 min each) by a specialist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 52 women with a mean age of 33.5 ± 6.5 were included for analysis. Depression, anxiety, and stress decreased significantly in women after 12 sessions of regular hatha yoga practice (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Yoga has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, it can be used as complementary medicine.
  11,780 1,634 13
REVIEW ARTICLES
Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward
Mahaveer Golechha
2016, 7:7 (11 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.173797  PMID:26941908
Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.
  11,466 1,726 26
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tuberculosis in India: Road to elimination
Sakshi Singh, Sandeep Kumar
2019, 10:114 (12 June 2019)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_492_17  PMID:31360361
  10,947 306 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control
Ramezan Ali Ataee, Mohammad Hosein Ataee, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Mahmud Salesi
2017, 8:16 (10 March 2017)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.201923  PMID:28382192
The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.
  10,040 1,195 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Abdominal obesity indicators: Waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in Malaysian adults population
Norfazilah Ahmad, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed Adam, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
2016, 7:82 (8 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.183654  PMID:27330688
Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist-hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.
  9,558 1,630 23
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The growing global problem of vaccine hesitancy: Time to take action
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
2016, 7:18 (13 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.173924  PMID:26941919
  8,546 318 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidaemia: A randomized clinical trial
Negar Aslani, Mohammad Hasan Entezari, Gholamreza Askari, Zahra Maghsoudi, Mohammad Reza Maracy
2016, 7:95 (29 July 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.187248  PMID:27563431
Background: This study was performed to effects of garlic and lemon juice mixture on lipid profile and some cardiovascular risk factors in people 30-60 years old with moderate hyperlipidemia. Methods: In a parallel-designed randomized controlled clinical trial, a total of 112 hyperlipidemic patients 30-60 years, were recruited from Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. People were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Control blood samples were taken and height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded. (1) Received 20 g of garlic daily, plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice, (2) received 20 g garlic daily, (3) received 1 tablespoon of lemon juice daily, and (4) did not receive garlic or lemon juice. A study technician was done the random allocations using a random numbers table. All participants presented 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records during 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (changes from baseline: 40.8 ± 6.1, P 0< 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (29.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.001), and fibrinogen (111.4 ± 16.1, P < 0.001) in the Group 1, in comparison with other groups. A greater reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in Group 1 compared with the Groups 3 and 4 (37 ± 10, P = 0.01) (24 ± 1, P = 0.02); respectively. Furthermore, a great reduction in body mass index was observed in the mixed group compared with the lemon juice and control groups (1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Administration of garlic plus lemon juice resulted in an improvement in lipid levels, fibrinogen and blood pressure of patients with hyperlipidemia.
  7,881 970 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tumor cells growth and survival time with the ketogenic diet in animal models: A systematic review
Soheila Khodadadi, Nafiseh Sobhani, Somaye Mirshekar, Reza Ghiasvand, Makan Pourmasoumi, Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh
2017, 8:35 (25 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.207035  PMID:28584617
Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD) which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies. So, we conducted this systematic review to assess the effects of KD on the tumor cells growth and survival time in animal studies. All databases were searched from inception to November 2015. We systematically searched the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholars, Science Direct and Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. To assess the quality of included studies we used SYRCLE's RoB tool. 268 articles were obtained from databases by primary search. Only 13 studies were eligible according to inclusion criteria. From included studies, 9 articles indicate that KD had a beneficial effect on tumor growth and survival time. Tumor types were included pancreatic, prostate, gastric, colon, brain, neuroblastoma and lung cancers. In conclusions, although studies in this field are rare and inconsistence, recent findings have demonstrated that KD can potentially inhibit the malignant cell growth and increase the survival time. Because of differences physiology between animals and humans, future studies in cancer patients treated with a KD are needed.
  6,922 1,210 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of an educational program based on health belief model on preventing osteoporosis in women
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Alireza Hidarnia, Mohammad Hossein Kaveh, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Alireza Askari
2015, 6:115 (24 November 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.170429  PMID:26730345
Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased to 0.125, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of knowledge, walking, and diet on bone mass by HBM. Hence, these models can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the osteoporosis prevention.
  7,387 735 12
REVIEW ARTICLES
Effects of complementary medicine on nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A systematic review
Giti Ozgoli, Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz
2018, 9:75 (30 August 2018)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_430_16  PMID:30319738
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common problem for pregnant women. Researchers have recently paid special attention to complementary medicine methods for the treatment of NVP. Regarding the high prevalence of NVP as well as maternal and fetal adverse effects of chemical drugs, the present study, focusing on clinical trials carried out in Iran, was conducted to assess safety and efficacy of different nonpharmacological methods in relieving NVP. This systematic review focused on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and assessed complementary medicine on NVP for which databases including MedLib, Magiran, Iran Medex, SID, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar search engines from 2000 to 2015 were searched. Those articles that gained score 3 or higher, according to Jadad criteria, were recruited for the study. In this study, 31 clinical trials assessing NVP were conducted on Iranian pregnant women. After removing ten articles, 21 articles with scores 3 and higher, according to Jedad criteria, were assessed. Out of 21 papers, 10 papers were about ginger, one was about cardamom, one was about lemon, two were about peppermint aromatherapy, six were about pericardium 6 (P6) acupressure, and one article about KID21 acupressure. Most studies have demonstrated a positive effect on reducing NVP; however, no adverse effect was reported. According to the results of this review, the majority of methods employed were effective in reducing the incidence of NVP, among which ginger and P6 acupressure can be recommended with more reliability.
  6,815 1,176 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
First aid knowledge among University students in Jordan
Moawiah Khatatbeh
2016, 7:24 (22 January 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.174772  PMID:26941925
Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.
  7,024 791 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Effect of school-based interventions to control childhood obesity: A review of reviews
Maryam Amini, Abolghassem Djazayery, Reza Majdzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Taghdisi, Shima Jazayeri
2015, 6:68 (3 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.162059  PMID:26330984
Effectiveness of school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight and obesity among school children was reviewed for a 11-year period (January 2001 to December 2011). All English systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of reviews, policy briefs and reports targeting children and adolescents which included interventional studies with a control group and aimed to prevent or control overweight and/or obesity in a school setting were searched. Four systematic reviews and four meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Results of the review indicated that implementation of multi-component interventions did not necessarily improve the anthropometric outcomes. Although intervention duration is a crucial determinant of effectiveness, studies to assess the length of time required are lacking. Due to existing differences between girls and boys in responding to the elements of the programs in tailoring of school-based interventions, the differences should be taken into consideration. While nontargeted interventions may have an impact on a large population, intervention specifically aiming at children will be more effective for at-risk ones. Intervention programs for children were required to report any unwanted psychological or physical adverse effects originating from the intervention. Body mass index was the most popular indicator used for evaluating the childhood obesity prevention or treatment trials; nonetheless, relying on it as the only indicator for adiposity outcomes could be misleading. Few studies mentioned the psychological theories of behavior change they applied. Recommendations for further studies on school-based interventions to prevent or control overweight/obesity are made at the end of this review.
  6,471 1,249 37
Protein restriction, epigenetic diet, intermittent fasting as new approaches for preventing age-associated diseases
Nazanin Asghari Hanjani, Mohammadreza Vafa
2018, 9:58 (29 June 2018)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_397_16  PMID:30050669
Data from epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that diet and eating patterns have a major role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated diseases. Since 1935, calorie restriction (CR) has been identified as one of the most effective nongenetic dietary interventions that can increase lifespan. It involves reducing calorie intake by about 20%–40% below ad libitum, without malnutrition. Restricting food intake has been observed to increase lifespan and prevent many age-associated diseases in rats, mice, and many other species. Understanding the metabolic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms involved in the anti-aging effects of CR can help us to find dietary interventions that can mimic its effects. Recently, different studies have shown that intermittent fasting, protein restriction, and an epigenetic diet can have similar effects to those of CR. These approaches were selected because it has been indicated that they act through a similar molecular pathway and also, are safe and effective in delaying or preventing diseases. In this review, we focus on the mechanistic pathway involved in CR. Then, we review the mimicking interventions through the mechanistic approach. For this purpose, we reviewed both animal and human articles, mainly available through the PubMed online database. We then selected the most relevant full texts which are summarized in this article.
  6,426 1,063 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years
Hamid Najafipour, Mohammad Masoomi, Armita Shahesmaeili, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Hamid Reza Nasri, Masoomeh Kahnooji, Sadra Samadi, Ali Mirzazadeh
2015, 6:42 (20 May 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.157470  PMID:26097671
Background: Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors. Methods: We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant. Results: Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P < 0.01). Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile. Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.
  6,563 349 11
Effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood: A randomized clinical trial
Farideh Vaziri, Mahsa Shiravani, Fatemeh Sadat Najib, Saeedeh Pourahmad, Alireza Salehi, Zahra Yazdanpanahi
2017, 8:29 (4 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_137_16  PMID:28567231
Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P< 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), fatigue (P = 0.02, P< 0.001), and distress scores (P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001) and negative (P = 0.007, P< 0.001) moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group.
  5,713 1,049 14
Effect of cucurbita ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption on blood glucose, lipid profile, and inflammatory marker in Type 2 Diabetes
Azade Bayat, Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari
2016, 7:30 (2 February 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.175455  PMID:26955460
Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.
  5,745 856 21
Prevention of dehydration in independently living elderly people at risk: A study protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Francis JCM Konings, Jolanda JP Mathijssen, Jasper M Schellingerhout, Ike HT Kroesbergen, Joyce Goede de, Ien AM Goor de
2015, 6:103 (19 October 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.167617  PMID:26644904
Background: Dehydration of elderly people living independently is a very important public health issue. This study compares two interventions to prevent dehydration in elderly people at risk: an educational intervention and an educational intervention in combination with a drink reminder device. Methods: This is an experimental two-armed parallel study. A Public Health Service develops the interventions and will be partnering with a general practice and a university to evaluate the effects. Two groups - all people aged 80 years and older, and people of 65 years and older who have cardiovascular disease - receive a letter from the general practice in which they are asked whether they want to participate in the study and if so to return the form. People who want to participate and whose daily fluid intake is insufficient are randomized to receive either the educational intervention or the educational intervention in combination with a drink reminder device. The participants are asked to fill in a questionnaire before the intervention, 6 weeks after the start of the intervention and 6 months after the start (or after the end) of the intervention. Changes between the two groups in fluid intake, knowledge, awareness of the risks of dehydration, and quality-of-life will be tested by Linear Mixed Model analyses. Conclusions: This study will improve the knowledge of the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent dehydration in elderly people.
  5,972 606 1
Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model
Samira Mohammadi, Haydeh Ghajari, Rohollah Valizade, Naseh Ghaderi, Fayegh Yousefi, Parvaneh Taymoori, Bejan Nouri
2017, 8:24 (13 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_264_16  PMID:28479966
Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran), in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM). Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89) but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101). There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005). Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259). Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years), that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.
  5,717 734 7
"Theory based health education: Application of health belief model for Iranian obese and overweight students about physical activity" in Urmia, Iran
Baratali Rezapour, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Hamidreza Khalkhali
2016, 7:115 (10 October 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.191879  PMID:27761217
Background: Obesity is a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physical education program (PEP) on promoting health belief model (HBM) scores, increasing physical activity (PA), and reducing obesity among Iranian high school students. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was accomplished at four high schools that were randomly divided into two groups of experiment (forty) and control (forty) male students in junior high schools in Urmia, Iran. Students in the experimental group received a PEP during 6 months. The essential parameters were used for evaluating the effects of educational program on HBM, PA, and body mass index (BMI) of students. Results: After the intervention of 3 and 6 months, the experimental group showed a significant difference on the results of HBM constructs. According to the result of repeated-measures ANOVA, there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups about the components of PA constructs. Analysis of covariance showed that although BMI reduced in 6 months after intervention, there was no significant difference in BMI. Conclusions: Results of the study revealed that implementation of PEP was effective on increasing the score of the components of HBM and PA of students.
  5,773 632 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nutritional aspects of depression in adolescents - A systematic review
Preeti Khanna, Vijay K Chattu, Bani T Aeri
2019, 10:42 (3 April 2019)
DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.255419  PMID:31057727
Depression is defined as a cluster of specific symptoms with associated impairment affecting 7.4% of the adolescents globally. As part of the systematic review, around 1000 relevant articles published between January 1978 and December 2017 were identified by systematic online search from 6 electronic databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Science Direct, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar) and overall, 56 relevant studies were included in the current review as per the inclusion criteria. Findings highlight the potential importance of the relationship between healthy dietary patterns or quality and positive mental health throughout life span. Various nutrition and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset maintenance and severity of depressive symptoms and disorders. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers. In this context, several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, nuts, legumes, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables have been inversely associated with the risk of depression and might also improve symptoms. In contrast western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverages, fried foods, processed meats, baked products have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. Diet and nutrition offer key modifiable targets for the prevention of mental disorders. Evidence is steadily growing for the relation between nutrition deficiencies, diet quality and mental health and for the efficacy and use of nutritional supplements to address deficiencies or as augmentation therapies. We advocate recognition of diet and nutrition as crucial factors in prevention and management of mental disorders.
  5,365 931 -
EDITORIAL
Strategies for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections
Farahnak Assadi
2018, 9:50 (4 June 2018)
DOI:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_299_17  PMID:29963301
  5,633 636 9