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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Ramelteon, as a melatonin receptor agonist, can induce inhibition of the effects of cocaine by activating the TNF-α receptor (TNFR)/JNK/Bcl-2-Beclin1 or TNFR/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway and cell death caused by it. Melatonin receptor activation by both melatonin and ramelteon also causes mitochondrial biogenesis activation and may cause direct inhibition of JNK/Bcl-2-Beclin1 or JNK/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways, which may reduce apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation. TNFR: TNF-α receptor, MTR: Melatonin receptor, Ra: Ramelteon, MT: Melatonin

Figure 1: Ramelteon, as a melatonin receptor agonist, can induce inhibition of the effects of cocaine by activating the TNF-α receptor (TNFR)/JNK/Bcl-2-Beclin1 or TNFR/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway and cell death caused by it. Melatonin receptor activation by both melatonin and ramelteon also causes mitochondrial biogenesis activation and may cause direct inhibition of JNK/Bcl-2-Beclin1 or JNK/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathways, which may reduce apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation. TNFR: TNF-α receptor, MTR: Melatonin receptor, Ra: Ramelteon, MT: Melatonin